Global map of SUMO function revealed by protein-protein interaction and genetic networks.
ABSTRACT Systematic functional genomics approaches were used to map a network centered on the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) system. Over 250 physical interactions were identified using the SUMO protein as bait in affinity purification-mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid screens. More than 500 genes and 1400 synthetic genetic interactions were mapped by synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis using eight different SUMO pathway query genes. The resultant global SUMO network highlights its role in 15 major biological processes and better defines functional relationships between the different components of the SUMO pathway. Using this information-rich resource, we have identified roles for the SUMO system in the function of the AAA ATPase Cdc48p, the regulation of lipid metabolism, localization of the ATP-dependent endonuclease Dna2p, and recovery from the DNA-damage checkpoint.
Article: Dual-functioning transcription factors in the developmental gene network of Drosophila melanogaster.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Quantitative models for transcriptional regulation have shown great promise for advancing our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying gene regulation. However, all of the models to date assume a transcription factor (TF) to have either activating or repressing function towards all the genes it is regulating. In this paper we demonstrate, on the example of the developmental gene network in D. melanogaster, that the data-fit can be improved by up to 40% if the model is allowing certain TFs to have dual function, that is, acting as activator for some genes and as repressor for others. We demonstrate that the improvement is not due to additional flexibility in the model but rather derived from the data itself. We also found no evidence for the involvement of other known site-specific TFs in regulating this network. Finally, we propose SUMOylation as a candidate biological mechanism allowing TFs to switch their role when a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is covalently attached to the TF. We strengthen this hypothesis by demonstrating that the TFs predicted to have dual function also contain the known SUMO consensus motif, while TFs predicted to have only one role lack this motif. We argue that a SUMOylation-dependent mechanism allowing TFs to have dual function represents a promising area for further research and might be another step towards uncovering the biological mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation.BMC Bioinformatics 01/2010; 11:366. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the essential small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protease Ulp1 is responsible for both removing SUMO/Smt3 from specific target proteins and for processing precursor SUMO into its conjugation-competent form. Ulp1 localizes predominantly to nuclear pore complexes but has also been shown to deconjugate sumoylated septins at the bud-neck of dividing cells. How Ulp1 is directed to bud-neck localized septins and other cytoplasmic deconjugation targets is not well understood. Using a structure/function approach, we set out to elucidate features of Ulp1 that are required for substrate targeting. To aid our studies, we took advantage of a catalytically inactive mutant of Ulp1 that is greatly enriched at the septin ring of dividing yeast cells. We found that the localization of Ulp1 to the septins requires both SUMO and specific structural features of Ulp1's catalytic domain. Our analysis identified a 218-amino acid, substrate-trapping mutant of the catalytic domain of Ulp1, Ulp1(3)(C580S), that is necessary and sufficient for septin localization. We also used the targeting and SUMO-binding properties of Ulp1(3)(C580S) to purify Smt3-modified proteins from cell extracts. Our study provides novel insights into how the Ulp1 SUMO protease is actively targeted to its substrates in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we found that a substrate-trapping Ulp1(3)(C580S) interacts robustly with human SUMO1, SUMO2 and SUMO2 chains, making it a potentially useful tool for the analysis and purification of SUMO-modified proteins.BMC Biology 01/2011; 9:74. · 5.75 Impact Factor