Article

Prevalence of HPV infection by cervical cytologic status in Brazil

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN, Brazil.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Impact Factor: 1.56). 02/2009; 105(1):21-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.12.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection according to cervical cytologic status in northeastern Brazil; identify other risk factors for low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs and HSILs); and identify the most prevalent HPV genotypes associated with the lesions.
Two cervical smears were collected from 250 women referred for cancer screening, one for cytologic examination and the other to test for the presence of HPV by PCR with genotyping by dot blot hybridization.
There were 110 healthy cervices, 82 LSILs, and 58 HSILs. The overall HPV prevalence was 48%, with higher rates for HSILs, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent type. Age, multiple sexual partners, type of HPV present, smoking, and early onset of sexual activity were risk factors for cervical lesions.
Age, multiple sexual partners, and infection with HPV-16 increased the risk of having LSILs or HSILs. Early onset of sexual activity and smoking only increased the risk of having HSILs.

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    • "HPV16 was twice as common as any other genotype in all countries, except in Nigeria, where the prevalence of HPV35 was similar to that of HPV16 [21]. In countries in South America, such as Paraguay and Brazil, HPV16 and HPV18 have been reported to be the predominant types related to invasive cervical cancers, followed by HPV45, HPV33, HPV31, HPV52, HPV35, and HPV39 [10] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the prevalence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a population in southern Brazil. Methods In a retrospective cross-sectional study, the prevalence of ASCUS was determined among women aged 20–60 years who were referred to a private medical center in Caxias do Sul by a gynecologist for assessment of a cervical condition between January 1, 2010, and September 30, 2011. Histologic and cytologic samples were tested for HPV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to genotype any HPV DNA identified. Results Among the 250 included women, 25 (10.0%) had ASCUS. HPV DNA was found in 15 (60.0%) women with ASCUS and 115 (51.1%) of the 225 without ASCUS. Viral typing showed that 7 (46.7%) HPV-positive women with ASCUS had multiple infections with up to five different genotypes. Both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes were found in ASCUS samples; the most prevalent genotypes were HPV6/HPV11 (affecting 10 [66.7%] women), HPV51 (6 [40.0%]), and HPV16 (6 [40.0%]). Conclusion ASCUS is not an indication of HPV infection. HPV screening and genotyping would benefit women with ASCUS, because treatment can be planned according to risk of carcinogenesis.
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 09/2014; 128(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.07.027 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Fifteen HPVs have been classified as high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82) that cause dysplasia and cancer, 12 have been classified as low-risk types (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108) that usually cause low-grade mild dysplasia, genital warts, and respiratory papillomatosis, and three have been classified as probable high-risk types (26, 53, and 66) (Munoz et al., 2003). HPVs 31, 33, 35, 51, and 52 are sometimes regarded as 'intermediate-risk' viruses because they are more common in mild or severe dysplastic lesions than in carcinomas (Fernandes et al., 2009). Cutaneous HPVs constitute more than 75% of the HPVs described to date and are grouped into five different genera: alpha-PV, beta- PV, gamma-PV, mu-PV, and nu-PV (De Villiers et al., 2004) that are not generally associated with cancers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a central and necessary, although not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. Besides HPV, the additional multiple risk factors related with the onset of cervical cancer are early-age sexual activities; high number of sexual partners, which is the most salient risk factor; suppression and alteration of the immune status; long-term use of oral contraceptives; and other hormonal influences. The tumor-suppressor proteins p53 and pRb are degraded and destabilized through ubiquitination by viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. Over 95% of cervical cancer cases worldwide test positive for oncogenic HPV DNA. Although cervical screening procedures have been successful in reducing the disease burden associated with HPV infection because of lack of resources or inadequate infrastructure many countries have failed to reduce cervical cancer mortality. Therefore, prevention may be a valuable strategy for reducing the economic and disease burden of HPV infection. At present, two successful prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, quadrivalent (HPV16/18/6/11) 'Gardasil' and bivalent (HPV16/18) 'Cervarix' for vaccinating young adolescent girls at or before the onset of puberty. Recent data indicate that vaccination prevents the development of cervical lesions in women who have not already acquired the vaccine-specific HPV types. Moreover, several therapeutic vaccines that are protein/peptide-based, DNA-based, or cell-based are in clinical trials but are yet to establish their efficacy; these vaccines are likely to provide important future health benefits. The therapeutic vaccination mode of prevention is a promising area of research, as revealed in preclinical trials; however, clinical trials based on large populations are warranted before reaching a valid conclusion. This review summarizes the studies on the epidemiology of HPV infection, the pathogenesis of viral oncoproteins in the oncogenesis of cervical cancer, the economic and health burden of HPV-related diseases, and, finally, focuses on the results of recent clinical vaccination trials.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 10/2013; 23(3). DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328364f273 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Most HPV infections are transient and some studies show that the majority of sexually active individuals are exposed to and acquire infection from this virus at some phase in their lives. HPV infection is more prevalent in young adults, at the beginning of their sexual activity, with a subsequent decline in the prevalence rate with increasing age, likely as a result of the development of an immune response against the virus and reduction of sexual activity [10] [11]. Currently, it is known with certainty that HPV is the etiologic agent of virtually all cases of cervical cancer and is responsible for a high proportion of preinvasive cervical lesions as well as genital warts and other nongenital cancers [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge level about HPV and screening of cervical cancer in women from the metropolitan region of Natal, Brazil. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study involving sexually active women was conducted. The participants were submitted to a face-to-face interview, using a structured questionnaire that permitted the quantification of data and opinions of the respondents. Results. Most participants (70.9%) had poor knowledge about HPV and also the Pap test (53.0%). The high level of knowledge about HPV was associated with age, education, marital status, household income, and pregnancy, while the high level of knowledge about the Pap test proved to be associated only with education and household income. Conclusion. The results highlight the need for performing educational campaigns emphasizing the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical lesions of different degrees, including cervical cancer, as well as the importance of having a Pap test regularly to prevent these diseases.
    ISRN obstetrics and gynecology 03/2013; 2013:930479. DOI:10.1155/2013/930479
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