HIV infection of the genital mucosa in women

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, D3-100, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.
Current HIV/AIDS Reports (Impact Factor: 3.8). 03/2009; 6(1):20-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11904-009-0004-1
Source: PubMed


The vast majority of new HIV infections are acquired via the genital and rectal mucosa. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge of how HIV establishes local infection, with an emphasis on viral invasion through the female genital tract. Studies using human explant tissues and in vivo animal studies have improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways of infection; this information could be harnessed to design effective HIV vaccines and microbicides.

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Available from: Florian Hladik, Jun 04, 2014
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    • "Thus far, several plant-based vaccine models have been developed that can be used to assess the efficacy of a number of HIV immunogens in test animals (Fig. 9.1). As the most common routes of HIV transmission are the genitourinary and rectal mucosa, wherein HIV invades across epithelial cells (Hladik and Hope 2009), mucosal vaccines are proposed as viable candidates that can induce local mucosal immune responses that would eventually mediate immunoprotection on mucosal surfaces (Levine 2000; Lamm 1997). The following sections provide an overview of advanced models of plant-based candidate vaccines against HIV (Fig. 9.2). "

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    • ", elastin , collagen and laminin ) , thus disrupting the mucosal barrier . This improves cellular movement over the epithelial layer but also enhances HIV transmission through gaps between the epithelial cells ( Hladik and Hope , 2009 ) . In addition , the protein enhances the production of IL - 8 and MCP - 1 by endothelial cells , which contributes to continued inflammation , and recruits neutrophils , monocytes and T cells ( van der Geld et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (HESNs) are persons who possess in vivo resistance against HIV. Using iTRAQ, we compared protein abundance profiles from cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples obtained from HESNs with samples from low-risk seronegative and from seropositive persons. Serpin A5 and myeloblastin were up- and downregulated, respectively. We hypothesize that a balance between the downregulation of serine proteinases and the upregulation of their inhibitors may contribute to HIV-resistance Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (155 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
    Virology 06/2014; s 458–459(1):11–21. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.015 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Heterosexual intercourse is identified as the main mode of HIV transmission among women.2 Due to biological vulnerabilities, eg, larger surface area of the vagina and cervix in comparison to the male penis,4 women are at a twofold-higher risk of infection than men when exposed to unprotected sexual intercourse.2 "
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