Mediolateral and rostrocaudal topographic organization of the sympathetic preganglionic cell pool in the spinal cord of Xenopus laevis.
ABSTRACT The sympathetic preganglionic cell pool in Xenopus laevis can be divided into four parts, i.e., the intercalated nucleus (IC) and the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) located respectively at the medial and the lateral borders of the lateral field, the lateral funiculus, and the ventral field within the thoracolumbar spinal segments. We compared the location of the preganglionic cells labeled following tracer application to the paravertebral sympathetic chain with those labeled following application to the celiac ganglion (CG), the adrenal gland (AG), and the splanchnic nerves (SNs) and found that their relative contribution differs depending on the sites. In tracer application to the paravertebral chain ganglia and the sympathetic trunk, 31.4-41.9% and 43.9-58.4% of labeled cells were detected respectively in the IC and in the IML, whereas application to the CG, AG, and on all the SNs, revealed that more than 84% of labeled cells were found in the IML and in the lateral funiculus with less than 8.6% in the IC. The contribution of the ventral field cells was less than 7.5% in all experiments. This type of topographic cytoarchitecture is a character shared with the mammalian preganglionic cell pool, but what distinguishes it from that of mammals is its systematic form throughout the entire longitudinal extent of the pool. In Xenopus, differences of mean soma areas and dendritic projections of labeled cells also suggest that the cell pools are distinguished not only by their location and axonal projections, but also by the morphology of their cells.
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ABSTRACT: Although the neuroanatomical distribution of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons has been well documented across all vertebrate classes, few studies have examined CA connectivity to physiologically and anatomically identified neural circuitry that controls behavior. The goal of this study was to characterize CA distribution in the brain and inner ear of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) with particular emphasis on their relationship with anatomically labeled circuitry that both produces and encodes social acoustic signals in this species. Neurobiotin labeling of the main auditory endorgan, the saccule, combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence (TH-ir) revealed a strong CA innervation of both the peripheral and central auditory system. Diencephalic TH-ir neurons in the periventricular posterior tuberculum, known to be dopaminergic, send ascending projections to the ventral telencephalon and prominent descending projections to vocal-acoustic integration sites, notably the hindbrain octavolateralis efferent nucleus, as well as onto the base of hair cells in the saccule via nerve VIII. Neurobiotin backfills of the vocal nerve in combination with TH-ir revealed CA terminals on all components of the vocal pattern generator which appears to largely originate from local TH-ir neurons but may include diencephalic projections as well. This study provides strong evidence for catecholamines as important neuromodulators of both auditory and vocal circuitry and acoustic-driven social behavior in midshipman fish. This first demonstration of TH-ir terminals in the main endorgan of hearing in a non-mammalian vertebrate suggests a conserved and important anatomical and functional role for dopamine in normal audition. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Journal of Comparative Neurology 04/2014; · 3.51 Impact Factor