Gender-Specific Differences between the Concentrations of Nonvolatile (R)/(S)-3-Methyl-3-Sulfanylhexan-1-Ol and (R)/(S)-3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Hexanoic Acid Odor Precursors in Axillary Secretions

Firmenich SA, Corporate R&D Division, PO Box 239, CH-1211 Geneva 8, Switzerland.
Chemical Senses (Impact Factor: 3.16). 02/2009; 34(3):203-10. DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjn076
Source: PubMed


The volatile fatty acid, (R)/(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid ((R)/(S)-HMHA), and the human specific volatile thiol, (R)/(S)-3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol ((R)/(S)-MSH), were recently identified as major components of human sweat malodor. Their 2 corresponding precursors were subsequently isolated from sterile and odorless axillary secretions. The purpose of this work was to analyze these 2 odor precursors in 49 male and female volunteers over a period of 3 years to elucidate to which extent they are implicated in the gender-specific character of body odor. Surprisingly, the ratio between the acid precursor 1, a glutamine conjugate, and the "sulfur" precursor 2, a cysteinylglycine-S-conjugate, was 3 times higher in men than in women with no correlation with either the sweat volume or the protein concentration. Indeed, women have the potential to liberate significantly more (R)/(S)-MSH, which has a tropical fruit- and onion-like odor than (R)/(S)-HMHA (possibly transformed into (E)/(Z)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid) that has a cheesy, rancid odor. Parallel to this work, sensory analysis on sweat incubated with isolated skin bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis Ax3, Corynebacterium jeikeium American Type Culture Collection 43217, or Staphylococcus haemolyticus Ax4) confirmed that intrinsic composition of sweat is important for the development of body odors and may be modulated by gender differences in bacterial compositions. Sweat samples having the highest sulfur intensity were also found to be the most intense and the most unpleasant.

Download full-text


Available from: Gerrit Borchard, Oct 23, 2014
46 Reads
  • Source
    • "The different bacterial compositions of male and female skin might also lead to phenotypic differences. For example, odor precursors in men and women’s sweat are modulated by the gender differences in bacterial compositions [34]. We found significantly more male subjects in the Prevotella community class before statistical correction, although this becomes insignificant after correcting for multiple comparisons. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Determining bacterial abundance variation is the first step in understanding bacterial similarity between individuals. Categorization of bacterial communities into groups or community classes is the subsequent step in describing microbial distribution based on abundance patterns. Here, we present an analysis of the groupings of bacterial communities in stool, nasal, skin, vaginal and oral habitats in a healthy cohort of 236 subjects from the Human Microbiome Project. Results We identify distinct community group patterns in the anterior nares, four skin sites, and vagina at the genus level. We also confirm three enterotypes previously identified in stools. We identify two clusters with low silhouette values in most oral sites, in which bacterial communities are more homogeneous. Subjects sharing a community class in one habitat do not necessarily share a community class in another, except in the three vaginal sites and the symmetric habitats of the left and right retroauricular creases. Demographic factors, including gender, age, and ethnicity, significantly influence community composition in several habitats. Community classes in the vagina, retroauricular crease and stool are stable over approximately 200 days. Conclusion The community composition, association of demographic factors with community classes, and demonstration of community stability deepen our understanding of the variability and dynamics of human microbiomes. This also has significant implications for experimental designs that seek microbial correlations with clinical phenotypes.
    Genome Biology 05/2014; 15(5):R66. DOI:10.1186/gb-2014-15-5-r66 · 10.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "When the sweat is mixed with bacteria population, trace amount precursor substances contained in the sweat (such as proteins, lipids, amino acid and steroids) are metabolized by the normal skin flora to produce unpleasant body odors. The body odor components of individuals are determined by many factors involving health status [7] [8], hereditary features [9], food habits [10] and even gender [10] [11] and age [12] [13] [14] [15]. Therefore, the body odors contain a large amount of information related to the body chemistry of individuals. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An odor sensor based on a fluorescent imaging system was developed to detect the sweat odor of human body. Volatile organic acid substances with low molecular weight were supposed to be one of the key contributors to the odor of a sweat sample collected from the human body. Quinine sulfate, a pH-dependent fluorescent compound that shows fluorescent enhancing in the presence of organic acids, was utilized to prepare an agarose-gel supported fluorescent film. The existence of organic acid components with high abundance in the collected sweat sample was confirmed by the analysis of SPME-GC/MS. Sequence images of the fluorescent film in the absence and presence of odors were recorded by a high-resolution CCD camera. The response of the sensor to typical organic acids in sweat odor, such as acetic acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid, was evaluated by the analysis of subtraction images as well as the real-time change of mean gray value (MGV). The odor of the sweat sample after incubation was successfully visualized, which indicates the application potential of the developed fluorescent imaging sensor in the detection of human body odor.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 04/2013; 183:117–123. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2013.03.111 · 4.10 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emotional sweating and malodour production represent a relevant challenge to today’s antiperspirant (AP) and deodorant products as stress in everyday life increases continuously. The aim of this study was to investigate stress-induced sweating in teenagers who are known to experience various stressful situations, e.g. exams at school or job interviews. To induce emotional sweating in 20 female and 20 male adolescents (16–18 years of age), we applied the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), considered today to be the most reliable and standardized stress protocol. In this study, we demonstrate that the TSST induces high amounts of sweat and strong axillary malodour in the tested age group. Notably, male teenagers showed significantly higher stress-induced odour scores than female subjects, although no gender differences were detected concerning other physiological stress markers. Testing of a novel deodorant/AP product developed to specifically address the needs of adolescent consumers revealed excellent deodorant and AP efficacy under the challenging conditions of the TSST. La transpiration et les mauvaises odeurs produites lors d’émotion représentent un réel défi pour les produits déodorants et anti-transpirants (AP) d’aujourd’hui compte tenu de l’augmentation continue du stress dans la vie quotidienne. Le but de l’étude présentée est d’examiner la transpiration induite par le stress chez les adolescents dont on sait qu’ils éprouvent des situations stressantes diverses, par exemple des examens à l’école ou des entretiens d’embauche. Pour provoquer une transpiration émotionnelle chez 40 adolescents: 20 femmes, 20 hommes (16–18 ans), nous avons utilisé le Trier Social Stress Test Stress (TSST), considéré aujourd’hui comme le protocole de stress le plus fiable et standardisé. Ici, nous démontrons que le TSST provoque un fort taux de sueur et de fortes odeurs axillaires dans la tranche d’âge évaluée. Les adolescents masculins ont montré des scores d’intensité d’odeur induite par le stress significativement plus élevé que les sujets féminins, quoiqu’aucune différence de genre n’ait été détectée concernant d’autres marqueurs de stress physiologiques. Le test d’un nouveau produit de déodorant/AP développé spécifiquement pour les besoins de consommateurs adolescents, a révélé un excellent déodorant et une efficacité d’AP dans les conditions de stimulation du TSST.
    International journal of cosmetic science 02/2011; 33(1):90-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00596.x · 1.38 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications