Natural Arctium lappa fruit extract improves the clinical signs of aging skin
ABSTRACT Subclinical, chronic tissue inflammation involving the generation of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) might contribute to the cutaneous aging process.
This study aims to screen for an active ingredient with anti-inflammatory (i.e., reduction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix-stimulating efficacy which improves the clinical signs of skin aging in vivo.
In vitro studies with pure Arctiin were performed investigating the inhibition of cytokine induction and stimulation of collagen neo-synthesis. In vivo home-in-use studies using an Arctium lappa fruit extract-containing formulation were carried out to determine procollagen and hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan synthase-2 gene expression, and reduction of wrinkle volume after treatment.
In vitro studies on human dermal fibroblasts and monocyte-derived dendritic cells supplemented with pure Arctiin showed relative to untreated control cells a stimulation of collagen synthesis and a decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, respectively. In addition, topical in vivo application of an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation for 12 weeks significantly stimulated procollagen synthesis and increased hyaluronan synthase-2 expression as well as hyaluronan levels compared to vehicle-treated control areas. Similarly, after a 4-week treatment with an A. lappa fruit extract-containing formulation, wrinkle volume in the crow's feet area was significantly reduced as compared to treatment with the vehicle.
Our data show that topical treatment with a natural A. lappa fruit extract significantly improves the metabolism of the dermal extracellular matrix and leads to a visible wrinkle reduction in vivo. In conclusion, A. lappa fruit extract represents a targeted means to regenerate dermal structures and, thus, offers an effective treatment option for mature skin.
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ABSTRACT: To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa) and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in α -melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respectively. The active compound arctigenin of Fructus Arctii displayed little or no cytotoxicity at all concentrations examined and decreased the relative melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Melanogenic inhibitory activity was also identified in vivo with zebrafish embryo. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, the effects of arctigenin on tyrosinase gene expression and tyrosinase promoter activity were examined. Also in addition, in the signaling cascade, arctigenin dose dependently decreased the cAMP level and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. This result suggests that arctigenin downregulates cAMP and the tyrosinase enzyme through its gene promoter and subsequently upregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity by increasing phosphorylation in the melanogenesis signaling pathway, which leads to a lower melanin content.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 2013:965312. DOI:10.1155/2013/965312
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ABSTRACT: Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.Journal of Biotechnology 12/2009; 145(4):367-76. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2009.11.021
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ABSTRACT: The effects of a 10% α-hydroxy acid (AHA) oil/water (O/W) emulsion on the pH of human skin surface (pH(ss)) and stratum corneum (SC; pH(sc)) were evaluated in vivo. The AHA O/W emulsion was applied to an area on the volar forearm of male volunteers (n = 12), and then wiped off after 10 min. Prior to application and over the following 3 h, the pH(ss) was measured. We used glass electrode measurements and time domain dual lifetime referencing (tdDLR) with luminescent sensor foils. In another experiment (n = 5), the impact of the AHA O/W emulsion on the pH(sc) gradient was measured by tape stripping of the SC of the volar forearm after application of the AHA O/W emulsion. Compared with pH(ss) values prior to treatment [5.2 ± 1.7 (tdDLR) or 4.8 ± 0.5 (electrode)], the pH(ss) was significantly reduced 10 min after application [4.0 ± 0.3 (tdDLR) or 4.1 ± 0.1 (electrode)] and the pH(ss) remained significantly reduced over the measurement period of 3 h [after 3 h: 4.4 ± 0.2 (tdDLR) or 4.5 ± 0.3 (electrode)]. The AHA O/W emulsion significantly reduced the pH(sc) even down to deep layers of the SC. After a 10-min application time, the 10% AHA O/W emulsion reduces the pH(ss) (for at least 3 h) and pH(sc) in deep layers of the SC.Skin pharmacology and physiology 09/2011; 25(1):34-8. DOI:10.1159/000331204