Psychological effects of prevention: do participants of a type 2 diabetes prevention program experience increased mental distress?
ABSTRACT To evaluate the mental health outcome of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and to exclude possible harmful psychological effects.
There is little empirical data on potential harmful effects of prevention programs. However, information, education, diagnostic procedures, phenotyping and risk assessment may cause or intensify psychological distress such as anxiety, depression or somatization in vulnerable individuals.
The Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program (TULIP) for the prevention of type 2 diabetes has assessed mental health outcome in the participants after 9 months of program participation using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R). The 24-months lifestyle intervention TULIP comprises regular exercise and changes in nutrition and assesses both, a broad range of somatic parameters as well as psychometric variables. For an interim analysis of psychological outcome, complete data sets of the SCL-90-R assessed at baseline and after 9 months of intervention were available for 195 participants (125 females, 70 males; age: 46.1 +/- 10.6 years). Data on somatization, anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress were compared to baseline levels.
SCL-90-R scores of the TULIP-participants did not significantly differ from the German healthy reference population. Compared to baseline, a significant decrease in SCL-90-R scores was found for anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress at re-assessment after 9 months.
The interim analysis on mental health outcome of a type 2 diabetes prevention program comprising extensive phenotyping and risk assessment rules out adverse psychological effects, suggesting rather beneficial changes concerning symptoms of anxiety, depression and overall psychological distress.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this project was to develop evidence-based guidelines regarding psychosocial aspects of diabetes mellitus in an effort to help the clinician bridge the gap between research and practice. Recommendations address the following topics: patient education, behavioural medicine, and psychiatric disorders of particular relevance to diabetes: depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and dependence on alcohol and nicotine. The present guidelines were developed through an interdisciplinary process of consensus according to the specifications of evidence-based medicine and are recognized by the German Diabetes Association and the German College for Psychosomatic Medicine as their official guidelines.Current diabetes reviews 09/2005; 1(3):255-70.
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ABSTRACT: Lifestyle intervention is effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). It is currently unknown whether it has beneficial effects on metabolism to a similar extent, in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) compared to individuals with IGT. Data from 181 subjects (133 with NGT and at risk for type 2 diabetes and 48 with IGT) who participated in the Tuebingen Lifestyle Intervention Program with increase in physical activity and decrease in caloric intake were included into this study. Body fat distribution was quantified by whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) tomography and liver fat and intramyocellular fat by (1)H-MR spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). After 9 +/- 2 months of follow-up, the diagnosis of IGT was reversed in 24 out of 48 individuals. Only 14 out of 133 participants with NGT developed IGT. Body weight decreased in both groups by 3% (both P < 0.0001). Two-hour glucose concentrations during an OGTT decreased in individuals with IGT (-14%, P < 0.0001) but not with NGT (+2%, P = 0.66). Insulin sensitivity increased both in individuals with IGT (+9%, P = 0.04) and NGT (+17%, P < 0.0001). Visceral fat (-8%, P = 0.006), liver fat (-28%, P < 0.0001) and intramyocellular fat (-15%, P = 0.006) decreased in participants with IGT. In participants with NGT these changes were significant for visceral fat (-16%, P < 0.0001) and liver fat (-35%, P < 0.0001). Moderate weight loss under a lifestyle intervention with reduction in total, visceral and ectopic fat and increase in insulin sensitivity improves glucose tolerance in individuals with IGT but not with NGT. In individuals with NGT, the beneficial effects of a lifestyle intervention on fat distribution and insulin sensitivity possibly prevent future deterioration in glucose tolerance.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/2007; 37(7):535-43. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess psychological contributors or correlates of sexual dysfunction in diabetic men. The study was conducted on 40 diabetic men and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. The subjects underwent a psychosexual interview with their sexual partners and had a comprehensive medical evaluation to rule out the confounding effects of other illnesses or medications. Psychiatric, psychological and marital information was obtained with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-L), the SCL-90-R, the Derogatis Sexual Function Inventory, the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment test and the Dyadic Adjustment Inventory. Compared to controls, diabetic patients had significantly lower levels of erotic drive, sexual arousal, enjoyment and satisfaction. Problems in these areas coexisted with alterations in sexual attitudes and body image but were not related to group differences in marital adjustment as reported separately by the patients and their partners. There was no evidence that psychological distress or psychiatric disorders are associated with diabetes or with its effects on sexual function.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 05/1995; 39(3):305-14. · 3.27 Impact Factor