Article

Vitamin B6: a long known compound of surprising complexity.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.43). 02/2009; 14(1):329-51. DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010329
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound's critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back and summarizes the discovery of vitamin B6 and the elucidation of its structure and biosynthetic pathways. It provides a detailed overview on vitamin B6 both as a cofactor and a protective compound. Besides these general characteristics of the vitamin, the review also outlines the current literature on vitamin B6 derivatives and elaborates on recent findings that provide new insights into transport and catabolism of the compound and on its impact on human health.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
125 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus bulgaricus is commonly used in dairy products as a starter culture. Its viability during freeze-drying is of commercial interest. Here a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in survival rate of L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was achieved during freeze-drying when it was prestressed with 2 % (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. To understand the mechanism of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, protein synthesis was analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis. Nine protein spots were significantly altered by NaCl and were subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The functions of the proteins included stress-related protein synthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, sugar metabolism, transport systems, and vitamin biosynthesis. These findings provide a considerable background regarding the NaCl stress response of L. bulgaricus.
    Biotechnology Letters 07/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin B6 is a designation for the vitamers pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and their respective 5'-phosphates. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the biologically most-important vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many enzymes, mainly active in amino acid metabolism. While microorganisms and plants are capable of synthesizing vitamin B6, other organisms have to ingest it. The vitamer pyridoxine, which is used as a dietary supplement for animals and humans is commercially produced by chemical processes. The development of potentially more cost-effective and more sustainable fermentation processes for pyridoxine production is of interest for the biotech industry. We describe the generation and characterization of a Bacillus subtilis pyridoxine production strain overexpressing five genes of a non-native deoxyxylulose 5'-phosphate-dependent vitamin B6 pathway. The genes, derived from Escherichia coli and Sinorhizobium meliloti, were assembled to two expression cassettes and introduced into the B. subtilis chromosome. In vivo complementation assays revealed that the enzymes of this pathway were functionally expressed and active. The resulting strain produced 14mg/l pyridoxine in a small-scale production assay. By optimizing the growth conditions and co-feeding of 4-hydroxy-threonine and deoxyxylulose the productivity was increased to 54mg/l. Although relative protein quantification revealed bottlenecks in the heterologous pathway that remain to be eliminated, the final strain provides a promising basis to further enhance the production of pyridoxine using B. subtilis.
    Metabolic Engineering 06/2014; · 6.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms (SHMT1 & SHMT2α), which serve as scaffold protein for the formation of a multi-enzyme complex and generate one-carbon unit for the de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway during DNA synthesis, are vitamin B6 (VB6)-dependent enzyme. Cancer cells with high proliferation intensity need increased SHMT activation which enforces the facilitated-diffusion of VB6 for the continuous functioning of thymidylate synthase cycle. Therefore, SHMT knockdown presents an alternative approach to prevent DNA synthesis in cancer cells; however, its potential to inhibit cancer growth remains unknown so far. Here we demonstrated that VB6 coupled to poly(ester amine) (VBPEA) enforces a high level of VTC (VB6-transporting membrane carriers)-mediated endocytosis of the complexed SHMT1 siRNA (siSHMT1) to interrupt the thymidylate biosynthesis pathway of cancer cells. The detrimental effect of SHMT1 knockdown on the disintegration of multi-enzyme complex resulted in cell cycle arrest and a decrease in cell's genomic DNA content, leading to enhanced apoptotic events in cancer cells. A reduction in tumor size was observed with constant SHMT1 suppression in xenograft mice. This study illustrates how silencing the SHMT1 expression inhibits cancer growth and the increased VB6 channeling for sustenance of cancer cells promotes VB6-coupled vector to elicit enhanced delivery of siSHMT1.
    Biomaterials 08/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
30 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014