Article

Vitamin B6: a long known compound of surprising complexity.

School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.
Molecules (Impact Factor: 2.1). 02/2009; 14(1):329-51. DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010329
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In recent years vitamin B6 has become a focus of research describing the compound's critical function in cellular metabolism and stress response. For many years the sole function of vitamin B6 was considered to be that of an enzymatic cofactor. However, recently it became clear that it is also a potent antioxidant that effectively quenches reactive oxygen species and is thus of high importance for cellular well-being. In view of the recent findings, the current review takes a look back and summarizes the discovery of vitamin B6 and the elucidation of its structure and biosynthetic pathways. It provides a detailed overview on vitamin B6 both as a cofactor and a protective compound. Besides these general characteristics of the vitamin, the review also outlines the current literature on vitamin B6 derivatives and elaborates on recent findings that provide new insights into transport and catabolism of the compound and on its impact on human health.

Full-text

Available from: Christopher Hendrickson, Jun 03, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
149 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lichen-forming fungus was isolated from the desert lichen Endocarpon pusillum that is extremely drought resistant. To understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in the fungus, we employed RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR to compare and characterize the differentially expressed genes in pure culture at two different water levels and with that in desiccated lichen. The comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 1781 genes were differentially expressed between samples cultured under normal and PEG-induced drought stress conditions. Similar to those in drought resistance plants and non-lichenized fungi, the common drought-resistant mechanisms were differentially expressed in E. pusillum. However, the expression change of genes involved in osmotic regulation in E. pusillum is different, which might be the evidence for the feature of drought adaptation. Interestingly, different from other organisms, some genes involved in drought adaption mechanisms showed significantly different expression patterns between the presence and absence of drought stress in E. pusillum. The expression of 23 candidate stress responsive genes was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR using dehydrated E. pusillum lichen thalli. This study provides a valuable resource for future research on lichen-forming fungi and shall facilitate future functional studies of the specific genes related to drought resistance.
    Science China. Life sciences 12/2014; 58(1). DOI:10.1007/s11427-014-4760-9 · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis represents a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of fractures and mortality. Nutrition should form part of bone disease prevention strategies, especially in the light of the population ageing and the diet effect on bone health. Thus the study aimed at verifying whether 1 year of oral supplementation with either extra virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6 (VitVOO) or VOO used as placebo (PlaVOO) is able to modify some bone turnover and oxidative stress markers. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 60 healthy post-menopausal women together with the bone vitamin K status by measuring undercarboxylated osteocalcine (ucOC) plasma levels, the ratio between ucOC and carboxylated osteocalcine (UCR) and the relations with oxidative stress markers. After 1 year (T 1), subjects taking VitVOO showed lower ucOC levels than those taking PlaVOO; the same trend was found for UCR. As far as BMD is concerned, a significant increase in T-score at T 1 in VitVOO subjects compared to PlaVOO was found. All oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes showed a significant reduction after VitVOO supplementation, whilst plasma total antioxidant capacity values was significantly increased in VitVOO group compared to PlaVOO group at T 1. It might be suggested that the use of VitVOO in the diet of post-menopausal women could represent a proper tool for bone protection and a useful strategy against oxidative stress and related diseases, thus confirming the antioxidant role played by the added vitamins.
    Endocrine 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12020-015-0529-6 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Until now, pyridoxine (PN), the most commonly supplemented B6 vitamer for animals and humans, is chemically synthesized for commercial purposes. Thus, the development of a microbial fermentation process is of great interest for the biotech industry. Recently, we constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain that formed significant amounts of PN via a non-native deoxyxylulose 5'-phosphate-(DXP)-dependent vitamin B6 pathway. Here we report the optimization of the condensing reaction of this pathway that consists of the 4-hydroxy-L-threonine-phosphate dehydrogenase PdxA, the pyridoxine 5'-phosphate synthase PdxJ and the native DXP synthase, Dxs. To allow feeding of high amounts of 4-hydroxy-threonine (4-HO-Thr) that can be converted to PN by B. subtilis overexpressing PdxA and PdxJ, we first adapted the bacteria to tolerate the antimetabolite 4-HO-Thr. The adapted bacteria produced 28-34mg/l PN from 4-HO-Thr while the wild-type parent produced only 12mg/l PN. Moreover, by expressing different pdxA and pdxJ alleles in the adapted strain we identified a better combination of PdxA and PdxJ enzymes than reported previously, and the resulting strain produced 65mg/l PN. To further enhance productivity mutants were isolated that efficiently take up and convert deoxyxylulose (DX) to DXP, which is incorporated into PN. Although these mutants were very efficient to convert low amount of exogenous DX, at higher DX levels they performed only slightly better. The present study uncovered several enzymes with promiscuous activity and it revealed that host metabolic pathways compete with the heterologous pathway for 4-HO-Thr. Moreover, the study revealed that the B. subtilis genome is quite flexible with respect to adaptive mutations, a property, which is very important for strain engineering. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Metabolic Engineering 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ymben.2015.03.007 · 8.26 Impact Factor