Effect of chromium on the level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in occupationally exposed workers.
ABSTRACT Chromium may affect humoral and cellular immunity, acting on T lymphocytes as well as on granulocytes and monocytes cells. Cytokines play an important role in the immune balance. In this study, the level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were evaluated in the sera and PHA/LPS stimulated culture supernatant of human PBMCs of healthy volunteers and occupationally exposed chromium workers. All the workers were highly exposed to chromium having mean of 104.65+/-77.21 microg/dL (range 23.7-316.8 microg/dL). A suspension of exposed and unexposed human PBMC (0.5x10(6) cells/ml) prepared and cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FCS for 18 h in the presence or absence of LPS (10 ng/ml) which used for stimulation of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were evaluated in the sera samples as well as LPS stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed workers. In these chromium exposed workers the level of IL-12 was 433.66+/-197.49 pg/ml and 983.45+/-330.99 pg/ml in LPS stimulated culture supernatant of normal individuals and highly chromium exposed workers, which was significant (P<0.05). Although the level of IL-12 was (78.61+/-61.03 pg/ml to 146.52+/-46.37 pg/ml) elevated in unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed individuals as compared to control, but it was not significant. This observation also suggests that a significant increase in IFN-gamma production in LPS stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed workers as compared to control. However, IFN-gamma level have a significant positive correlation between blood chromium level (r=0.833, t=6.3872, P 0.05) and exposure time (in years) (r=0.8916, t=8.3540, P 0.05) of the occupationally exposed workers.
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ABSTRACT: The role of chromate exposure in the deregulation of total lymphocyte and other immune factors is largely unclear. We aimed to examine alteration of the Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile and humoral indicators caused by occupational chromate exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two similar workshops (groups 1 and 2) with 106 male occupational workers and 50 matched local controls. Environmental and biological exposures were assessed by measuring chromium concentrations in workplace air, and in whole blood and urine samples of the workers. Cytokines in serum (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A) were determined by CBA assay, while immunoglobin (IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE) and complement (C3, C4) were evaluated by immunonephelometric and ELISA methods. Micronucleus analysis was also used to explore the relationship between genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Compared with the control group, environmental chromate exposure in groups 1 and 2 was much higher, and the mean values of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IFN-γ/IL-4 were significantly decreased in group 1. In group 2, IgA and IgG levels were reduced, while C3 and C4 were increased. Levels of IFN-γ, IgG and IgA were all inversely associated with whole blood chromium, while C3 and C4 were positively associated with whole blood chromium (p<0.05). Both IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely associated with urine chromium. Correlations were also found between IL-10, IL-17A and micronucleus (r=-0.329, r=-0.312, respectively). Occupational exposure to chromate could downregulate the cellular and humoral factors of the immune system.Occupational and environmental medicine 06/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor