Effect of chromium on the level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma in occupationally exposed workers
ABSTRACT Chromium may affect humoral and cellular immunity, acting on T lymphocytes as well as on granulocytes and monocytes cells. Cytokines play an important role in the immune balance. In this study, the level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were evaluated in the sera and PHA/LPS stimulated culture supernatant of human PBMCs of healthy volunteers and occupationally exposed chromium workers. All the workers were highly exposed to chromium having mean of 104.65+/-77.21 microg/dL (range 23.7-316.8 microg/dL). A suspension of exposed and unexposed human PBMC (0.5x10(6) cells/ml) prepared and cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FCS for 18 h in the presence or absence of LPS (10 ng/ml) which used for stimulation of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The level of IL-12 and IFN-gamma were evaluated in the sera samples as well as LPS stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed workers. In these chromium exposed workers the level of IL-12 was 433.66+/-197.49 pg/ml and 983.45+/-330.99 pg/ml in LPS stimulated culture supernatant of normal individuals and highly chromium exposed workers, which was significant (P<0.05). Although the level of IL-12 was (78.61+/-61.03 pg/ml to 146.52+/-46.37 pg/ml) elevated in unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed individuals as compared to control, but it was not significant. This observation also suggests that a significant increase in IFN-gamma production in LPS stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatant of h-PBMCs of chromium exposed workers as compared to control. However, IFN-gamma level have a significant positive correlation between blood chromium level (r=0.833, t=6.3872, P 0.05) and exposure time (in years) (r=0.8916, t=8.3540, P 0.05) of the occupationally exposed workers.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of chromate exposure in the deregulation of total lymphocyte and other immune factors is largely unclear. We aimed to examine alteration of the Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile and humoral indicators caused by occupational chromate exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two similar workshops (groups 1 and 2) with 106 male occupational workers and 50 matched local controls. Environmental and biological exposures were assessed by measuring chromium concentrations in workplace air, and in whole blood and urine samples of the workers. Cytokines in serum (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A) were determined by CBA assay, while immunoglobin (IgA, IgM, IgG, IgE) and complement (C3, C4) were evaluated by immunonephelometric and ELISA methods. Micronucleus analysis was also used to explore the relationship between genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. Compared with the control group, environmental chromate exposure in groups 1 and 2 was much higher, and the mean values of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IFN-γ/IL-4 were significantly decreased in group 1. In group 2, IgA and IgG levels were reduced, while C3 and C4 were increased. Levels of IFN-γ, IgG and IgA were all inversely associated with whole blood chromium, while C3 and C4 were positively associated with whole blood chromium (p<0.05). Both IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely associated with urine chromium. Correlations were also found between IL-10, IL-17A and micronucleus (r=-0.329, r=-0.312, respectively). Occupational exposure to chromate could downregulate the cellular and humoral factors of the immune system.Occupational and environmental medicine 06/2013; 70(10). DOI:10.1136/oemed-2013-101421 · 3.23 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Guiyu is one of the most heavily chromium-polluted areas in China due to the numerous informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities. A 3-year (2004, 2006, and 2008) independent cross-sectional study on blood chromium (BCr) levels of 711 children from Guiyu and a control area was investigated. Questionnaire completed by parents/guardians was used to assess the risk factors of chromium (Cr) exposure, while physical examination, for the year 2008 only, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to Cr on child physical development. Children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BCr levels compared with those living in Chendian at the same period from 2004 to 2008 (P < 0.001). The predominant risk factors related to elevated child BCr levels included the use of house as a family workshop, parent involved in e-waste recycling, and child residence in Guiyu. Children's weight and chest circumferences in group with high exposure to Cr (upper quartile) were higher than in the low-exposure group (P < 0.01), although the difference was less significant for boys between the two groups (P < 0.05). The results suggest that elevated child BCr in Guiyu due to informal e-waste recycling activities might be threatening the health of children, with implications on physical growth and development.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2013; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s11356-013-2345-y · 2.76 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: We aimed to investigate suitable conditions of 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN) as genotoxic biomarkers at different levels of occupational chromate exposure. Design: A cross-sectional study was used. Participants: 84 workers who were exposed to chromate for at least 1 year were chosen as the chromate exposed group, while 30 non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Main outcome measures: Environmental and biological exposure to chromate was respectively assessed by measuring the concentration of chromate in the air (CrA) and blood (CrB) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) in all participants. MN indicators, including micronucleus cell count (MNCC), micro-nucleus count (MNC), nuclear bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NBUD) were calculated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMN), while the urinary 8-OHdG was measured by the ELISA method and normalised by the concentration of Cre. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of CrA, CrB, MNCC, MNC and 8-OHdG in the chromate-exposed group were all significantly higher (p<0.05). There were positive correlations between log(8-OHdG) and LnMNCC or LnMNC (r=0.377 and 0.362). The levels of LnMNCC, LnMNC and log (8-OHdG) all have parabola correlations with the concentration of CrB. However, there was a significantly positive correlation between log (8-OHdG) and CrB when the CrB level was below 10.50 mu g/L (r=0.355), while a positive correlation was also found between LnMNCC or LnMNC and CrB when the CrB level was lower than 9.10 mu g/L (r=0.365 and 0.269, respectively). Conclusions: MN and 8-OHdG can be used as genotoxic biomarkers in the chromate-exposed group, but it is only when CrB levels are lower than 9.10 and 10.50 mu g/L, respectively, that they can accurately reflect the degree of genetic damage.BMJ Open 10/2014; 4(10):e005979. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005979 · 2.06 Impact Factor