Autocatalytic processing of procathepsin B is triggered by proenzyme activity

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Structural Biology, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
FEBS Journal (Impact Factor: 3.99). 03/2009; 276(3):660-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06815.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cathepsin B (EC and other cysteine proteases are synthesized as zymogens, which are processed to their mature forms autocatalytically or by other proteases. Autocatalytic processing was suggested to be a bimolecular process, whereas initiation of the processing has not yet been clarified. Procathepsin B was shown by zymography to hydrolyze the synthetic substrate 7-N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-arginyl-L-arginylamide-4-methylcoumarin (Z-Arg-Arg-NH-MEC), suggesting that procathepsin B is catalytically active. The activity-based probe DCG-04, which is an E-64-type inhibitor, was found to label both mature cathepsin B and its zymogen, confirming the zymography data. Mutation analyses in the linker region between the propeptide and the mature part revealed that autocatalytic processing of procathepsin B is largely unaffected by mutations in this region, including mutations to prolines. On the basis of these results, a model for autocatalytic activation of cysteine cathepsins is proposed, involving propeptide dissociation from the active-site cleft as the first step during zymogen activation. This unimolecular conformational change is followed by a bimolecular proteolytic removal of the propeptide, which can be accomplished in one or more steps. Such activation, which can be also facilitated by glycosaminoglycans or by binding to negatively charged surfaces, may have important physiological consequences because cathepsin zymogens were often found secreted in various pathological states.

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Available from: Matthew Bogyo, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "Exceptionally, CatS, remains catalytically active under neutral pH and remains stable outside the lysosome. Like CatB and CatL, CatS undergoes autoactivation (Pungercar et al., 2009). Interestingly , glycosaminoglycans promote the autocatalytic processing of cathepsins to their mature forms (Caglic et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipemia has a direct impact on cardiac remodeling by altering extracellular matrix (ECM) components. One of the main ECM components is elastin, a proteic three-dimensional network that can be efficiently degraded by cysteine proteases or cathepsins. Dyslipemic status in insulin resistance and combined hyperlipoproteinemia diseases include raised levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), triglyceride (TG)-cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich lipoproteins. Enhanced VLDL concentration promotes cardiomyocyte intracellular cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in a LRP1-dependent manner. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of cardiomyocyte intracellular CE accumulation on tropoelastin (TE) characteristics and to investigate the role of LRP1 and Cathepsin S (CatS) on these effects. Molecular studies showed that LRP1 deficiency impared CE selective uptake and accumulation from TG-CE- rich lipoproteins (VLDL+IDL) and CE-rich lipoproteins (aggregated LDL, agLDL). Biochemical and confocal microscopic studies showed that LRP1-mediated intracellular CE accumulation increased CatS mature protein levels and induced an altered intracellular TE globule structure. Biophysical studies evidenced that LRP1-mediated intracellular CE accumulation caused a significant drop of Tg2 glass transition temperature of cardiomyocyte secreted TE. Moreover, CatS deficiency prevented the alterations in TE intracellular globule structure and on TE glass transition temperature. These results demonstrate that LRP1-mediated cardiomyocyte intracellular CE accumulation alters the structural and physical characteristics of secreted TE through an increase in CatS mature protein levels. Therefore, the modulation of LRP1-mediated intracellular CE accumulation in cardiomyocytes could impact pathological ventricular remodeling associated with insulin-resistance and combined hyperlipoproteinemia, pathologies characterized by enhanced concentrations of TG-CE-rich lipoproteins.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 09/2014; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.09.005 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    • "However, this argument can be dismissed when an acidic peri-or extracellular pH is considered. Under acidic pH conditions, procathepsins are effectively processed into catalytically mature proteases either autocatalytically (Pungercar et al. 2009; Vasiljeva et al. 2005) or by other proteases. Moreover, extracellular components such as polysaccharides can facilitate the processing of cathepsins as shown for procathepsin L (Mason and Massey 1992). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal proteases with housekeeping as well as highly specialized functions. Although their activities are optimal at lysosomal acidic and reducing conditions, cathepsins can significantly contribute to the degradation of the extracellular matrix. This may happen under physiological conditions as in cathepsin K-mediated bone resorption or under pathological conditions. Extracellular matrix degradation can occur extracellularly by the secretion of cathepsins or intracellularly following the endocytosis of matrix material. Under physiological conditions, the extracellular matrix is safeguarded against cathepsin activities by its neutral pH, oxidative environment, and high levels of potent endogenous cathepsin inhibitors. However, these barriers can be overcome by pericellular acidification and pathophysiologically reduced anticathepsin concentrations. Whereas matrix metalloproteases are primarily responsible for the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix, cysteine proteases contribute to its destruction under disease conditions. The development of cathepsin inhibitors as anti matrix-degrading drugs appears to be a successful strategy.
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