Qualité microbiologique des farines de blé consommées au Maroc

Canadian Journal of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.18). 01/2012; 58(2):145-150. DOI: 10.1139/w11-139

ABSTRACT Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A survey was undertaken to determine the microbiological status of Australian wheat and the distribution of microorganisms in the flour milling fractions and end products. A total of 650 milling process and end product samples was obtained from nine flour mills located in New South Wales (4), Queensland (2), Victoria (2) and Western Australia (1) during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 wheat seasons. Most frequent (modal) counts in wheat and flour were, respectively, as follows: aerobic mesophilic plate count, 10(5) and 10(2) colony forming units/gram (cfu/g); coliforms, 10 and 1 most probable number/gram (MPN/g); Bacillus spp., 10(4) and 10(2) cfu/g; B. cereus, 1 and 0.1 MPN/g; mesophilic aerobic spores, 10 and 1 cfu/g; aerobic thermophiles, both 10 cfu/g; yeasts, 10(3) and 10(2) cfu/g, and moulds, 10(3) and 10(2) cfu/g. Bacillus spp., coliforms, yeasts and moulds were the most frequently detected microorganisms throughout the survey. The most common moulds isolated were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Eurotium spp. Environmental serovars of Salmonella were isolated from two samples. Escherichia coli and B. cereus were present at very low levels, a majority of positive samples being at the minimum level of detection (3 and 0.3 MPN/g, respectively). As wheat grain layers are separated, surface-adhering contaminants are concentrated in end product bran, wheat germ and pollard, which comprise the outer layers of the grain. Consequently, the inner endosperm fraction contains lower microbial counts, and flour is the cleanest end product of the milling process. Higher microbiological counts midstream in the milling process indicate that equipment contamination may contribute to microbiological contamination; however, the microbiological quality of incoming wheat has a strong influence on the ultimate quality of milling end products.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 09/2003; 85(1-2):137-49. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat foods sold on the streets of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, was evaluated. Twenty to twenty-eight samples each of 10 different types of foods were analyzed. About 50% of the foods were deep fat fried, 20% were baked, 10% each were either boiled, pasteurized and frozen, or fermented and chilled products. Methods of food preparation and handling practices influenced the shelf lives of the foods, and their implications on microbiological quality and safety are discussed. The heterotrophic counts were highest for yogurt and ice cream and lowest for chin-chin and buns. Bacterial counts for pancake, moi moi, cake, meat pie and egg roll on McConkey agar gave comparable results with counts obtained on Deoxycholate agar. Eleven bacteria genera were isolated. Bacillus spp. and Klebsiella spp. occurred in most of the foods, followed by Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp., while other species exhibited a random distribution. Generally, the foods were microbiologically safe despite defective handling practices.
    Journal of Food Safety. 04/2007; 27(2):208 - 218.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Working in sewage plants can involve exposure to different types of microorganisms, viruses and chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different measurement strategies to determine airborne bacterial endotoxin in such plants. Sewage treatment plants in three municipalities in western Sweden were included. Measurements of airborne endotoxin were performed in April-May and September-October 2001 using personal and stationary samplers. The air sampling times ranged from 60 to 444 min. In stationary and personal sampler measurements, the amounts of airborne endotoxin detected were generally low. At specific worksites, however, higher endotoxin values were identified, with the highest values at worksites located indoors. The results suggest that the exposure situation is relatively stable over a short time period at a specific worksite and that higher values can be recorded during work practices where agitation of wastewater occurs. The results further suggest that airborne endotoxin exposure situations in sewage treatment plants are complex. Sampling techniques, indoor/outdoor measurements and identification of specific worksites/tasks where there is a risk of airborne endotoxin exposure are important factors that must be considered in order to obtain relevant exposure determinations and establish preventive measures from a health risk perspective.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2002; 46(6):549-54. · 2.07 Impact Factor


Available from