Decision making of heavy cannabis users on the Iowa Gambling Task: stronger association with THC of hair analysis than with personality traits of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.
ABSTRACT It is unclear whether impairment in decision making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in addiction is substance-induced or the consequence of personality structure.
Analysis of the IGT, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and cannabinoids in hair and urine were performed in 13 cannabis users and matched controls.
Hair Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) correlated negatively with the last subtrial (cards 80-100) of the IGT (R = -0.67). In all participants (n = 26) the TPQ dimension, harm avoidance, correlated negatively with the total IGT score (R = -0.46). The last IGT-subtrial correlated with adventure seeking (R = 0.43), harm avoidance (R = -0.39) and reward dependence (R = -0.44). The last subtrial gives information on whether a participant has learned the IGT strategy. Multiple regression confirmed the impact of THC on the last subtrial, whereas TPQ personality traits did not additionally explain variance.
Former indications of the IGT performance depending on the amount of cannabis consumed were replicated with an objective measurement of chronic cannabis consumption (hair THC). Multiple regression analysis argues for a stronger impact of chronic THC consumption than personality traits, but does not provide a causal relationship. Other factors (e.g. genetic) may also play a role.
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ABSTRACT: Internet addiction can seriously affect the social functioning and studies of college students in China but measures for addressing this problem have not yet been developed or tested.Shanghai archives of psychiatry. 04/2012; 24(2):99-107.
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ABSTRACT: Background: An association between impulsivity and smoking has been consistently reported in the literature, but few studies have examined how distinct dimensions of impulsivity may relate differentially to smoking initiation versus persistent smoking. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity and smoking status in college students. Methods: Participants (N = 243) completed a self-report history of tobacco use, 2 self-report measures of impulsivity (the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale), and 2 behavioral measures (the Delay Discounting Task and Iowa Gambling Task). All participants were classified as never-smokers, triers, or smokers based on their smoking history, and between-group differences on the 4 measures were examined. Results: On the self-report measures, all 3 groups differed on sensation seeking, with the never-smokers reporting the lowest levels and the smokers reporting the highest. Furthermore, the smokers reported significantly higher disinhibitory impulsivity than the triers and never-smokers. The groups did not differ on the behavioral measures. Conclusions: These results indicate that distinct dimensions of impulsivity characterize different smoking phenotypes. In particular, sensation seeking is associated with the initiation of smoking, whereas disinhibitory impulsivity is associated with the transition to more persistent and regular use of cigarettes.Substance Abuse 07/2013; 34(3):256-262. · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study used a monozygotic (MZ) cotwin-control (CTC) design to investigate associations between alcohol use and performance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT) in a sample of 96 adolescents (half female). The MZ CTC design is well suited to shed light on whether poor decision-making, as reflected on IGT performance, predisposes individuals to abuse substances or is a consequence of use. Participants completed structural MRI scans as well, from which we derived gray matter volumes for cortical and subcortical regions involved in IGT performance and reduced in adolescents with problematic alcohol use. Drinking was associated with poorer task performance and with reduced volume of the left lateral orbital-frontal cortex. CTC analyses indicated that the former was due to differences between members of twin pairs in alcohol use (suggesting a causal effect of alcohol), whereas the latter was due to factors shared by twins (consistent with a pre-existing vulnerability for use). Although these preliminary findings warrant replication, they suggest that normative levels of alcohol use may diminish the quality of adolescent decision-making and thus have potentially important public health implications.Behavior Genetics 03/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor