Protein Kinase D1-Mediated Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of beta-Catenin

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusett 01655, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 02/2009; 69(3):1117-24. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6270
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT beta-Catenin is essential for E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in epithelial cells and also acts as a key cofactor for transcription activity. We previously showed that protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of the PKD family of signal transduction proteins, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer and interacts with E-cadherin. This study provides evidence that PKD1 interacts with and phosphorylates beta-catenin at Thr(112) and Thr(120) residues in vitro and in vivo; mutation of Thr(112) and Thr(120) results in increased nuclear localization of beta-catenin and is associated with altered beta-catenin-mediated transcription activity. It is known that mutation of Thr(120) residue abolishes binding of beta-catenin to alpha-catenin, which links to cytoskeleton, suggesting that PKD1 phosphorylation of Thr(120) could be critical for cell-cell adhesion. Overexpression of PKD1 represses beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity and cell proliferation. Epistatic studies suggest that PKD1 and E-cadherin are within the same signaling pathway. Understanding the molecular basis of PKD1-beta-catenin interaction provides a novel strategy to target beta-catenin function in cells including prostate cancer.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is increasingly implicated in multiple biological and molecular events that regulate the proliferation or invasiveness in several cancers. However, little is known about the expression and functions of PKD1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, 34 pairs of human NSCLC and matched normal bronchiolar epitheliums were enrolled and evaluated for PKD1 expression by quantitative real-time PCR. We showed that PKD1 was downregulated in 26 of 34 cancer tissues in comparison with matched normal epitheliums. Moreover, patients with venous invasion or lymph node metastasis showed significant lower expression of PKD1. Exposure of NSCLC A549 and H520 cells to the PKD family inhibitor kb NB 142-70(Kb), at concentrations that inhibited PKD1 activation, strikingly potentiated S6K1 phosphorylation at Thr389 and S6 phosphorylation at Ser235/236 in response to phorbol ester (PMA). Knockdown of PKD1 with siRNAs strikingly enhanced S6K1 phosphorylation whereas constitutively active PKD1 resulted in the S6K1 activity inhibition. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitors LY294002, BKM120 and MEK inhibitors U0126, PD0325901 blocked the enhanced S6K1 activity induced by Kb. Collectively, our results identify decreased expression of the PKD1 as a marker for NSCLC and the loss of PKD1 expression increases the malignant potential of NSCLC cells. This may be due to the function of PKD1 as a negative regulator of mTORC1-S6K1. Our results suggest that re-expression or activation of PKD1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 01/2015; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.12.018 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over 80% of colon cancer development and progression is a result of the dysregulation of β-catenin signaling pathway. Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate that a serine-threonine kinase, Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1), modulates the functions of β-catenin to suppress colon cancer growth. Analysis of normal and colon cancer tissues reveals downregulation of PKD1 expression in advanced stages of colon cancer and its co-localization with β-catenin in the colon crypts. This PKD1 downregulation corresponds with the aberrant expression and nuclear localization of β-catenin. In-vitro investigation of the PKD1-β-catenin interaction in colon cancer cells reveal that PKD1 overexpression suppresses cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and enhances cell-cell aggregation. We demonstrate that PKD1 directly interacts with β-catenin and attenuates β-catenin transcriptional activity by decreasing nuclear β-catenin levels. Additionally, we show that inhibition of nuclear β-catenin transcriptional activity is predominantly influenced by nucleus targeted PKD1. This subcellular modulation of β-catenin results in enhanced membrane localization of β-catenin and thereby increases cell-cell adhesion. Studies in a xenograft mouse model indicate that PKD1 overexpression delayed tumor appearance, enhanced necrosis and lowered tumor hypoxia. Overall, our results demonstrate a putative tumor-suppressor function of PKD1 in colon tumorigenesis via modulation of β-catenin functions in cells.possible CD8+-dependency and beneficial effect of nuclear IL-23p19 on overall patient survival.
    Oncotarget 08/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) is the biosynthetic enzyme responsible for nitric oxide (·NO) production in muscles and in the nervous system. This constitutive enzyme, unlike its endothelial and inducible counterparts, presents an N-terminal PDZ domain known to display a preference for PDZ-binding motifs bearing acidic residues at -2 position. In a previous work, we discovered that the C-terminal end of two members of protein kinase D family (PKD1 and PKD2) constitutes a PDZ-ligand. PKD1 has been shown to regulate multiple cellular processes and, when activated, becomes autophosphorylated at Ser916, a residue located at -2 position of its PDZ-binding motif. Since nNOS and PKD are spatially enriched in postsynaptic densities and dendrites, the main objective of our study was to determine whether PKD1 activation could result in a direct interaction with nNOS through their respective PDZ-ligand and PDZ domain, and to analyze the functional consequences of this interaction. Herein we demonstrate that PKD1 associates with nNOS in neurons and in transfected cells, and that kinase activation enhances PKD1-nNOS co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization. However, transfection of mammalian cells with PKD1 mutants and yeast two hybrid assays showed that the association of these two enzymes does not depend on PKD1 PDZ-ligand but its pleckstrin homology domain. Furthermore, this domain was able to pull-down nNOS from brain extracts and bind to purified nNOS, indicating that it mediates a direct PKD1-nNOS interaction. In addition, using mass spectrometry we demonstrate that PKD1 specifically phosphorylates nNOS in the activatory residue Ser1412, and that this phosphorylation increases nNOS activity and ·NO production in living cells. In conclusion, these novel findings reveal a crucial role of PKD1 in the regulation of nNOS activation and synthesis of ·NO, a mediator involved in physiological neuronal signaling or neurotoxicity under pathological conditions such as ischemic stroke or neurodegeneration.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95191. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095191 · 3.53 Impact Factor