Intakes of Red Meat, Processed Meat, and Meat Mutagens Increase Lung Cancer Risk

Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Office of Preventive Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, [corrected] Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7236, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 01/2009; 69(3):932-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3162
Source: PubMed


Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology, a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n = 2,101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining approximately 80% of the cases from the area. Noncancer population controls (n = 2,120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1,903 cases and 2,073 controls and used in conjunction with a meat mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P trend < 0.001 and OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P trend < 0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0; P trend = 0.001 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2; P trend = 0.001, respectively). HCAs and BaP were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

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Available from: Dario Consonni, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "Tests for trend were performed by creating a continuous variable from the median value for intake in controls within each quartile. We evaluated effect modification by smoking status, gender, race, BMI, and history of hypertension, by including product terms of the levels of dietary intake (quartiles) and the levels of the factor (i.e., 2 for race and 3 for smoking) in the multiple logistic regression model and testing for the joint significance of the additional terms using the Wald w 2 test that is appropriate for weighted data (Korn and Graubard, 1999). Statistical tests were determined to be significant at a two-sided Po0.05. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case-control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (P(trend)=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), P(trend)=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (P(interaction)<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC.
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    • "Satiety is defined as the sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns, while satiation is the process that leads us to stop eating, ending an eating occasion (Benelam 2009). In recent years, there has been great interest in the manipulation of satiation and satiety in order to control energy intake and thus bodyweight . "
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    • " the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 2004). BaP is present in drinking water, occupational exposures, tobacco and diet. In particular BaP is present in well - done red meat , fried poultry with skin , and fried eggs ( Kazerouni et al . , 2001 ) . Several studies suggest that dietary BaP is a probable carcinogen for lung cancer ( Lam et al . , 2009 ) , colorectal RESEARCH COMMUNICATION"
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    ABSTRACT: In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol.
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