Life and death by death receptors
ABSTRACT Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily characterized by a cytoplasmic region known as the "death domain" that enables the receptors to initiate cytotoxic signals when engaged by cognate ligands. Binding to the ligand results in receptor aggregation and recruitment of adaptor proteins, which, in turn, initiates a proteolytic cascade by recruiting and activating initiator caspases 8 and 10. Death receptors were once thought to primarily induce cytotoxic signaling cascades. However, recent data indicate that they initiate multiple signaling pathways, unveiling a number of nonapoptosis-related functions, including regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, chemokine production, inflammatory responses, and tumor-promoting activities. These noncytotoxic cascades are not simply a manifestation of inhibiting proapoptotic pathways but are intrinsically regulated by adaptor protein and receptor internalization processes. Insights into these various death receptor signaling pathways provide new therapeutic strategies targeting these receptors in pathophysiological processes.
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ABSTRACT: The discovery that the mammalian genome is largely transcribed and that almost half of the polyadenylated RNAs is composed of noncoding RNAs has attracted the attention of the scientific community. Growing amount of data suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of regulators involved not only in physiological processes, such as imprinting and differentiation, but also in cancer progression and neurodegeneration. Apoptosis is a well regulated type of programmed cell death necessary for correct organ development and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, cancer cells often show an inhibition of the apoptotic pathways and it is now emerging that overexpression or downregulation of different lncRNAs in specific types of tumors sensitize cancer cells to apoptotic stimuli. In this review we summarize the latest studies on lncRNAs and apoptosis with major attention to those performed in cancer cells and in healthy cells upon differentiation. We discuss the new perspectives of using lncRNAs as targets of anticancer drugs. Finally, considering that lncRNA levels have been reported to have a correlation with specific cancer types, we argue the possibility of using lncRNAs as tumor biomarkers.International Journal of Cell Biology 01/2014; 2014:473857. DOI:10.1155/2014/473857
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ABSTRACT: Background. In the last few years, the cancer research had tried to identify and characterize new biochemical and molecular pathways in which the inhibition induces prosurvival mechanisms. Our work describes the expression of two different members of apoptotic regulatory pathway and their relationship with a progression of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods. We compared expression of genes related to apoptosis (DR6 and Gpm6B) in the blood of patients suffering from stage I of breast cancer in different grades (I-IV), with healthy controls. After isolation of mRNA, transcription of mRNA into the cDNA was performed. The quantification of gene expression changes in DR6 and Gpm6B was detected by RT-PCR method. Analysis at the protein level was performed by the Western blot.Results. In statistical analysis of Dr6 mRNA level changes we detected significant increase starting in Grading 1 (G1) and reached maximal level in G3.This expression on mRNA levels was similar to protein levels, which copy rising tendency with maximal value in G3. The results of Gpm6B were significantly lower.Conclusion. This result showed that antiapoptotic signalling during neovascularization is increased significantly. It would be advisable in the future to study the influence of cytostatic treatment on the expression of genes related to apoptotic pathways and their relationship with progression of breast cancer tumours.Disease markers 01/2014; 2014:156034. DOI:10.1155/2014/156034 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decellularized tissues, native or engineered, are receiving increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine as scaffolds or implants for tissue and organ repair. The approach, which offers the opportunity to deliver off-the-shelf bioactive materials without immuno-matching requirements, is based on the rationale that extracellular matrix (ECM)-presented cues can be potently instructive towards regeneration. However, existing decellularization protocols typically result in damage to the source ECM and do not allow the controlled preservation of its structural, biochemical and/or biomechanical features. Here we propose the deliberate activation of programmed cell death as a method to selectively target the cellular component of a tissue and thereby to preserve the integrity of the decellularized ECM. In the case of engineered tissues, the approach could be complemented by the use of (i) an immortalized cell line, engineered to undergo apoptosis upon exposure to a chemical inducer, and (ii) a perfusion bioreactor system, supporting efficient removal of cellular material. The combination of these tools may lead to the streamlined development of more appropriate materials, based on engineered and decellularized ECM and including a customized set of signals specifically designed to activate endogenous regenerative processes.Biomaterials 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.04.058 · 8.31 Impact Factor