Genomic environment influences the dynamics of the tirant LTR retrotransposon in Drosophila.

Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.7). 02/2009; 23(5):1482-9. DOI: 10.1096/fj.08-123513
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Combining genome sequence analysis and functional analysis, we show that some full-length copies of tirant are present in heterochromatic regions in Drosophila simulans and that when tested in vitro, these copies have a functional promoter. However, when inserted in heterochromatic regions, tirant copies are inactive in vivo, and only transcription of euchromatic copies can be detected. Thus, our data indicate that the localization of the element is a hallmark of its activity in vivo and raise the question of genomic invasions by transposable elements and the importance of their genomic integration sites.

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    ABSTRACT: Transposable elements (TEs), whose propagation can result in severe damage to the host genome, are silenced in the animal gonad by Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). piRNAs produced in the ovaries are deposited in the embryonic germline and initiate TE repression in the germline progeny. Whether the maternally transmitted piRNAs play a role in the silencing of somatic TEs is however unknown. Here we show that maternally transmitted piRNAs from the tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila are required for the somatic silencing of the TE and correlate with an increase in histone H3K9 trimethylation an active tirant copy.
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    ABSTRACT: Genes are important in defining genetic variability, but they do not constitute the largest component of genomes, which in most organisms contain large amounts of various repeated sequences including transposable elements (TEs), which have been shown to account for most of the genome size. TEs contribute to genetic diversity by their mutational potential as a result of their ability to insert into genes or gene regulator regions, to promote chromosomal rearrangements, and to interfere with gene networks. Also, TEs may be activated by environmental stresses (such as temperature or radiation) that interfere with epigenetic regulation systems, and makes them powerful mutation agents in nature. To understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype, we need to analyze the portions of the genome corresponding to TEs in great detail, and to decipher their relationships with the genes. For this purpose, we carried out comparative analyses of various natural populations of the closely-related species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans, which differ with regard to their TE amounts as well as their ecology and population size.
    Journal of environmental radioactivity 05/2012; 113:83-6. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that have the ability to move and replicate within the genomes. TEs can be classified according to their intermediates of transposition, RNA (retrotransposons) or DNA. In some aquatic organisms, it has been observed that environmental factors such as pH, temperature and pollution may stimulate differential transcription and mobilization of retrotransposons. In light of this information, the present study sought to evaluate the expression of Rex6 TE transcripts in Colossoma macropomum, which is a very commercially exploited fish in Brazil. In order to establish a comparative analysis using real-time PCR, the samples were collected from Amazonian rivers with different physical and chemical characteristics (distinguished by clear water and black water). Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a differential pattern of expression between tissues collected from different types of water (clear and black waters). When it came to the hepatic and muscle tissues sampled, the levels of Rex6 transcripts were significantly different between the two Amazonian water types. These results suggest that environmental conditions operate differently in the regulation of Rex6 transcription in C. macropomum, results which have implications in the reshaping of the genome against environmental variations.
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May 27, 2014