Structural basis for recruitment of Rab6-interacting protein 1 to Golgi via a RUN domain.
ABSTRACT Small GTPase Rab6 regulates vesicle trafficking at the level of Golgi via recruitment of numerous and unrelated effectors. The crystal structure of Rab6a(GTP) in complex with a 378-residue internal fragment of the effector Rab6IP1 was solved at 3.2 angstroms resolution. This Rab6IP1 region encompasses an all alpha-helical RUN domain followed in tandem by a PLAT domain that adopts a beta sandwich fold. The structure reveals that the first and last alpha helices of the RUN domain mediate binding to switch I, switch II, and the interswitch region of Rab6. It represents the largest Rab-effector complex determined to date. Comparisons with the recent structure of Rab6 in complex with an unrelated effector, human golgin GCC185, reveals significant conformational changes in the conserved hydrophobic triad of Rab6. Flexibility in the switch and interswitch regions of Rab6 mediates recognition of compositionally distinct alpha-helical coiled coils, thereby contributing to Rab6 promiscuity in effector recruitment.
Article: TBC-8, a putative RAB-2 GAP, regulates dense core vesicle maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dense core vesicles (DCVs) are thought to be generated at the late Golgi apparatus as immature DCVs, which subsequently undergo a maturation process through clathrin-mediated membrane remodeling events. This maturation process is required for efficient processing of neuropeptides within DCVs and for removal of factors that would otherwise interfere with DCV release. Previously, we have shown that the GTPase, RAB-2, and its effector, RIC-19, are involved in DCV maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons. In rab-2 mutants, specific cargo is lost from maturing DCVs and missorted into the endosomal/lysosomal degradation route. Cargo loss could be prevented by blocking endosomal delivery. This suggests that RAB-2 is involved in retention of DCV components during the sorting process at the Golgi-endosomal interface. To understand how RAB-2 activity is regulated at the Golgi, we screened for RAB-2-specific GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). We identified a potential RAB-2 GAP, TBC-8, which is exclusively expressed in neurons and which, when depleted, shows similar DCV maturation defects as rab-2 mutants. We could demonstrate that RAB-2 binds to its putative GAP, TBC-8. Interestingly, TBC-8 also binds to the RAB-2 effector, RIC-19. This interaction appears to be conserved as TBC-8 also interacted with the human ortholog of RIC-19, ICA69. Therefore, we propose that a dynamic ON/OFF cycling of RAB-2 at the Golgi induced by the GAP/effector complex is required for proper DCV maturation.PLoS Genetics 05/2012; 8(5):e1002722. · 8.69 Impact Factor
Article: The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood. Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics. We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34870. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells have developed a diverse repertoire of Rab GTPases to regulate vesicle trafficking pathways. Together with their effector proteins, Rabs mediate various aspects of vesicle formation, tethering, docking and fusion, but details of the biological roles elicited by effectors are largely unknown. Human Rab6 is involved in the trafficking of vesicles at the level of Golgi via interactions with numerous effector proteins. We have previously determined the crystal structure of Rab6 in complex with DENND5, alternatively called Rab6IP1, which comprises two RUN domains (RUN1 and RUN2) separated by a PLAT domain. The structure of Rab6/RUN1-PLAT (Rab6/R1P) revealed the molecular basis for Golgi recruitment of DENND5 via the RUN1 domain, but the functional role of the RUN2 domain has not been well characterized. Here we show that a soluble DENND5 construct encompassing the RUN2 domain binds to the N-terminal region of sorting nexin 1 by surface plasmon resonance analyses.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35637. · 4.09 Impact Factor