Risk of Future Offense Among Probationers with Co-occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders.
ABSTRACT The criminal justice system is the primary service delivery system for many adults with drug and alcohol dependence, mental health, and other health service needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between risk of future offense, mental health status and co-occurring disorders in a large substance abuse diversion probationer population. A purposive sample of 2,077 probationers completed an assessment to screen for mental health disorders, substance use disorders, risk of future crime and violence, and several demographic characteristics. Probationers who screened positive for co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders were significantly more likely to be at higher risk of future crime and violence compared to probationers who screened positive for only substance use, only a mental health disorder, or no substance use or mental health disorder. Implications for substance use and mental health service delivery are discussed, and recommendations are made for further research.
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the operating characteristics of the mood disorder questionnaire (MDQ) among offenders arrested and detained at a county jail. The MDQ, a brief self-report instrument designed to screen for all subtypes of bipolar disorder (BP I, II and NOS) was voluntarily administered to adult detainees at the Ottawa County Jail in Port Clinton, Ohio. A confirmatory diagnostic evaluation was also performed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI). The MDQ was scored using a standard algorithm requiring endorsement of 7/13 mood items as well as two items that assess whether manic or hypomanic symptoms co-occur and cause moderate to severe functional impairment. In addition to the standard algorithm for scoring the MDQ, modifications were also tested in an attempt to improve overall sensitivity. Among 526 jail detainees who completed the MDQ, 37 (7%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Of 164 detainees who agreed to a research diagnostic evaluation, 32 (19.5%) screened positive on the MDQ, while 55 (33.5%) met criteria for bipolar disorder according to the MINI. When administered to the sample of 164 adult jail detainees, the sensitivity of the MDQ was 0.47 and the specificity was 0.94. The MDQ was significantly better at detecting BP I (0.59) than BP II/NOS (0.19; p=0.008). Modification of scoring the MDQ improved the sensitivity for detection of BP II from 0.23 to 0.54 with minimal decrease in specificity (0.84). The optimum sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ was achieved by decreasing the item threshold to 3/13 and eliminating the symptom co-occurrence and functional impairment items. The MDQ was found to have limited utility as a screening tool for bipolar disorder in a correctional setting, particularly for the BP II subtype.Journal of Psychiatric Research 08/2008; 42(9):778-86. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2007.08.001 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder is a common and severe illness. It is also potentially fatal as a result of accidents and increased mortality associated with comorbid substance use and medical illnesses, but its highest lethality results from suicide. Suicide rates, averaging 0.4% per year in men and women diagnosed with bipolar disorder, are >20-fold higher than in the general population. Suicidal acts often occur early in the illness course and in association with severe depressive and dysphoric-agitated mixed phases of illness, especially following repeated, severe depressions. Systematic consideration of risk and protective factors enhances assessment of potentially suicidal patients. Short-term interventions employed empirically to manage acute suicidality include close clinical supervision, rapid hospitalisation and use of electroconvulsive treatment. Several plausible therapeutic interventions have limited evidence of long-term effectiveness against mortality risks associated with any psychiatric disorder, including antidepressant, antimanic, antipsychotic and electroconvulsive, as well as psychosocial, treatments. However, in bipolar disorder and other major affective disorders, lithium maintenance treatment is a notable exception, with strong and consistent evidence that it reduces suicidal risk. The growing range of drugs being introduced to treat acute and long-term phases of bipolar disorder, including antiepileptic drugs, atypical antipsychotics and relatively safe, modern antidepressants, require research assessment for their ability to limit premature mortality from suicide and other causes. For now, however, more can be done to improve treatment in major affective illnesses by application of current knowledge in a systematic fashion, with close and sustained clinical follow-up of patients at risk, hopefully with a resulting reduction of mortality rates.CNS Drugs 02/2003; 17(7):491-511. DOI:10.2165/00023210-200317070-00003 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined whether the presence of a comorbid substance use disorder increased the risk of criminal recidivism and reincarceration in prison inmates with a severe mental illness. Our analyses of more than 61,000 Texas prison inmates showed that those with a co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorder exhibited a substantially higher risk of multiple incarcerations over a 6-year period compared to inmates with psychiatric disorders alone or substance use disorders alone. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with criminal recidivism among released prisoners with co-occurring disorders.Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 10/2009; 37(4):367-74. DOI:10.1007/s10488-009-0252-9 · 3.44 Impact Factor