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    ABSTRACT: Qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in sediment samples collected at the coastal area of Tuna, Gujarat by FT-IR and XRD technique. From the IR absorption band or the locations of the different peaks, the minerals were identified with the available literature. In addition to the band positions, the sharpness or diffuseness of bands was helpful in the identification of mineral components. The IR study on sediment samples was highly useful in identifying the various minerals in sediments. Further, the representative sediment samples were analyzed by XRD technique to yield more information about the minerals. Both of these methods were non-destructive and can be used in the identification of mineralogical composition. These results confirmed that the applied techniques are relatively quicker and more reliable in mineral analysis. Introduction Sediments are principal carriers of the trace elements in the hydrosphere. Sediment particles are made up of materials derived from rock, soil, biological and anthropogenic inputs. The basic structural unit of inorganic sediment is silicate and aluminosilicate. Major components of sediments include clay, quartz, feldspars, various silicate minerals, gibbsite and calcium carbonate. They have been classified in a variety of ways according to different criteria such as their source, particle size and their composition. The size of sediments ranges from large size (>256 mm) called boulders down to <2 μm called clay. The more important size groupings are sand-63 to 2000 μm; slit-2 to 63 μm. The properties of sediment depend on its mineral composition, percentage of organic matter, sorption capacity for pollutants, porosity and particle size distribution. Properties of the sediments decide the concentration of the pollutant in the sediment. The mineral analysis is the prominent area of the research. It gives economic growth of the country. The radioactive minerals such as ilmenite, rutile, zirocm, garnet etc., will be used in the nuclear power reactor. Apart from the heavy minerals, the minerals like quartz, talc can be used for commercial application like quartz crystal and talc powder. The techniques such as thin section analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction studies, Mossbauer studies, magnetic methods, ultra-violet absorption studies and Infrared spectroscopic analysis are used for mineral analysis. Among the various techniques, IR spectroscopic technique is the best one for mineral analysis for its rapid, cheap, time consuming and non-destructive. In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the qualitative minerals analysis of coastal sediment samples collected at Tuna, Gujarat using FT-IR and XRD techniques. Infrared spectroscopy as an analytical tool presents a lot of advantages as it is accurate, inexpensive and reliable. The necessary sample amount is in the sub milligram range and sampling procedure is simple. As a major advantage, infrared spectroscopy permits the identification of the changes in both crystalline and amorphous samples. Infrared spectroscopy has been utilized significantly in quantitative analysis in the minerals is less attempted. The natural vibration frequencies of atoms in molecules and crystals fall in the infrared range. Certain frequencies corresponding to the energy levels of electrons in solids and in large molecules fall in the infrared. Infrared method is sensitive to short-range ordering or nearest-neighbor relation; while X-ray analysis is responsive to periodic arrangement of atoms, i.e., long-range order. Infrared spectroscopy has been widely used in the characterization of a large number of organic and inorganic compounds. Absorption of infrared energy by a mineral is associated with the vibrational and rotational motion of molecules within it. Commonly the infrared analysis employs the group vibration concept to ascertain the presence or absence of various functional groups in the molecule. Certain chemical groups have characteristic absorption bands that are consistent among mineral containing groups. The spectra originate primarily from vibrational stretching and bending modes within molecules. The method offers a fingerprint for identification of molecular structures. Empirical correlations of vibrating groups with specific observed absorption bands offer the possibility of chemical identification, and possibly quantitative analyses through intensity measurements. The band positions are
    Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 01/2010; 3(7).
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in sediment samples collected at the coastal area of Tuna, Gujarat by FT-IR and XRD technique. From the IR absorption band or the locations of the different peaks, the minerals were identified with the available literature. In addition to the band positions, the sharpness or diffuseness of bands was helpful in the identification of mineral components. The IR study on sediment samples was highly useful in identifying the various minerals in sediments. Further, the representative sediment samples were analyzed by XRD technique to yield more information about the minerals. Both of these methods were non-destructive and can be used in the identification of mineralogical composition. These results confirmed that the applied techniques are relatively quicker and more reliable in mineral analysis.
    Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 07/2010; 3(7):775-781.

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