The emerging role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in refining the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetically and phenotypically diverse disease with some patients at risk of sudden death or heart failure. Maron et al. used cardiovascular magnetic resonance, in a specialist clinic setting, to identify a cohort of HCM patients with left ventricular apical aneurysms that were not detected by conventional echocardiography. Apical aneurysms were variable in morphology and associated with scarring, thrombus, and the occurrence of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Preliminary follow-up data indicate that they could be associated with poor medium-term outcome. The paper by Maron et al. continues the gradual evolution of our understanding of HCM, highlighting an important clinical subset of patients and a phenotypic feature of HCM. The study also identifies cardiovascular magnetic resonance as an important technique for phenotyping cardiac diseases, identifying prognostically important features, and highlighting pathophysiological mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in a series of patients with ECG repolarisation changes and normal echocardiography. 10 patients with anterolateral T wave inversion for which there was no obvious pathological cause who had normal routine echocardiography without contrast for the exclusion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) also had CMR that was diagnostic of apical HCM. Apical HCM detected by CMR could be morphologically severe with wall thickness up to 28 mm, or mild. The extent of repolarisation abnormalities did not correlate to the morphological severity. In patients with unexplained repolarisation abnormalities, a normal routine echocardiogram without contrast does not exclude apical HCM. Further imaging with CMR or contrast echocardiography may be required. The reliance on routine echocardiography to exclude apical HCM may have led to underreporting of this condition.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 07/2004; 90(6):645-9. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe long-term outcome in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) followed in a tertiary referral center. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), first described in Japan. Initial reports, based on a limited number of patients, emphasized the benign nature of this condition. A retrospective study of 105 patients with ApHCM diagnosed at the Toronto General Hospital from 1975 to 2000 was performed. Symptoms, clinical findings, mortality and cardiovascular morbidity were analyzed. The mean age at presentation was 41.4 +/- 14.5 years. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 +/- 8.3 years from presentation, cardiovascular mortality was 1.9% (2/105) and annual cardiovascular mortality was 0.1%. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years. Thirty-two patients (30%) had one or more major morbid events, the most frequent being atrial fibrillation (12%) and myocardial infarction (10%). Probability of survival without morbid events was 74% at 15 years. Three predictors of cardiovascular morbidity were identified: age at presentation <41 years, left atrial enlargement, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class > or = II at baseline. Forty-four percent of the patients were asymptomatic at the time of last follow-up. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in North American patients is not associated with sudden cardiac death and has a benign prognosis in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Nevertheless, one third of these patients experience serious cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction and arrhythmias. These data are likely to influence the counseling and management of patients with ApHCM.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2002; 39(4):638-45. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional echocardiography is currently the standard test for the clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The present study was undertaken to determine whether cardiac MRI (CMR) affords greater accuracy than echocardiography in establishing the diagnosis and assessing the magnitude of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in HCM. Forty-eight patients (age 34+/-16 years) suspected of having HCM (or with a confirmed diagnosis) were imaged by both echocardiography and CMR to assess LV wall thickness in 8 anatomic segments (total n=384 segments) and compared in a blinded fashion. Maximum LV thickness was similar by echocardiography (21.7+/-9.1 mm) and CMR (22.5+/-9.6 mm; P=0.21). However, in 3 (6%) of the 48 patients, echocardiography did not demonstrate LV hypertrophy, and CMR identified otherwise undetected areas of wall thickening in the anterolateral LV free wall (17 to 20 mm), which resulted in a new diagnosis of HCM. In the overall study group, compared with CMR, echocardiography also underestimated the magnitude of hypertrophy in the basal anterolateral free wall (by 20+/-6%; P=0.001), as well as the presence of extreme LV wall thickness (> or =30 mm) in 10% of patients (P<0.05). CMR is capable of identifying regions of LV hypertrophy not readily recognized by echocardiography and was solely responsible for diagnosis of the HCM phenotype in an important minority of patients. CMR enhances the assessment of LV hypertrophy, particularly in the anterolateral LV free wall, and represents a powerful supplemental imaging test with distinct diagnostic advantages for selected HCM patients.Circulation 08/2005; 112(6):855-61. · 15.20 Impact Factor