Effects of Theobromine and Caffeine on Mood and Vigilance.
ABSTRACT Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23  years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P < 0.005). At every dose tested, theobromine failed to consistently affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.Nutrients 08/2014; 6(8):3202-3213. DOI:10.3390/nu6083202 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.Nutrition Reviews 12/2014; 72(12). DOI:10.1111/nure.12157 · 5.54 Impact Factor