Anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part 3: X-ray crystallographic characterization, core and urea optimization and in vivo efficacy.

Metabolic Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, PO Box 13398, Research Triangle Park, NC 27705, USA.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters (Impact Factor: 2.65). 01/2009; 19(4):1177-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.085
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Key binding interactions of the anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) inhibitor 2 from X-ray crystallography studies are described. This series of compounds bind to the AMP site of GP. Using the binding information the core and the phenyl urea moieties were optimized. This work culminated in the identification of compounds with single nanomolar potency as well as in vivo efficacy in a diabetic model.

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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3-D QSAR) studies on a set of 70 anthranilimide compounds has been performed using docking-based as well as substructure-based molecular alignments. This resulted in the selection of more statistically relevant substructure-based alignment for further studies. Further, molecular models with good predictive power were derived using CoMFA (r² = 0.997; Q² = 0.578) and CoMSIA (r² = 0.976; Q² = 0.506), for predicting the biological activity of new compounds. The so-developed contour plots identified several key features of the compounds explaining wide activity ranges. Based on the information derived from the CoMFA contour maps, novel leads were proposed which showed better predicted activity with respect to the already reported systems. Thus, the present study not only offers a highly significant predictive QSAR model for anthranilimide derivatives as glycogen phosphorylase (GP) inhibitors which can eventually assist and complement the rational drug-design attempts, but also proposes a highly predictive pharmacophore model as a guide for further development of selective and more potent GP inhibitors as anti-diabetic agents.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glucose-1-phosphate, the source of energy for muscles and the rest of the body. The binding of different ligands in catalytic or allosteric sites assures activation and deactivation of the enzyme. A description of the regulation mechanism and the implications in glycogen metabolism are given. Areas covered: Deregulation of GP has been observed in diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cancers. Therefore, it appears as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of such pathologies. Numbers of inhibitors have been published in academic literature or patented in the last two decades. This review presents the main patent claims published between 2008 and 2012. Expert opinion: Good inhibitors with interesting IC50 and in vivo results are presented. However, such therapeutic strategy raises questions and some answers are proposed to bring new insights in the field.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of morpholine substituted amino acids (phenylalanine, leucine, lysine and glutamic acid) was synthesized. A fragment-based screening approach was then used to evaluate a series of small heterocycles, including morpholine, oxazoline, dihydro-1,3-oxazine, tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepine, thiazoline, tetrahydro-1,3-pyrimidine, tetrahydro-1,3-diazepine and hexahydro-1H-benzimidazole, as potential inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase a. Thiazoline 7 displayed an improved potency (IC50 of 25 μM) and had good LE and LELP values, as compared to heterocycles 1, 5, 9-13 and 19 (IC50 values of 1.1 mM-23.9 mM). A docking study using the crystal structure of human liver Glycogen Phosphorylase, provided insight into the interactions of heterocycles 5, 7, 9-13 and 19 with Glycogen Phosphorylase.
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