Anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Part 3: X-ray crystallographic characterization, core and urea optimization and in vivo efficacy.
ABSTRACT Key binding interactions of the anthranilimide based glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) inhibitor 2 from X-ray crystallography studies are described. This series of compounds bind to the AMP site of GP. Using the binding information the core and the phenyl urea moieties were optimized. This work culminated in the identification of compounds with single nanomolar potency as well as in vivo efficacy in a diabetic model.
- SourceAvailable from: Mutasem Omar Taha[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The significant role played by docking algorithms in drug discovery combined with their serious pitfalls prompted us to envisage a novel concept for validating docking solutions, namely, docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis (dbCICA). This novel approach is based on the number and quality of contacts between docked ligands and amino acid residues within the binding pocket. It assesses a particular docking configuration on the basis of its ability to align a set of ligands within a corresponding binding pocket in such a way that potent ligands come into contact with binding site spots distinct from those approached by low-affinity ligands and vice versa. In other words, dbCICA evaluates the consistency of docking by assessing the correlation between ligands' affinities and their contacts with binding site spots. Optimal dbCICA models can be translated into valid pharmacophore models that can be used as 3-D search queries to mine structural databases for new bioactive compounds. dbCICA was implemented to search for new inhibitors of candida N-myristoyl transferase as potential antifungal agents and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) inhibitors as potential antidiabetic agents. The process culminated in five selective micromolar antifungal leads and nine GP inhibitory leads.Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 03/2011; 51(3):647-69. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glucose-1-phosphate, the source of energy for muscles and the rest of the body. The binding of different ligands in catalytic or allosteric sites assures activation and deactivation of the enzyme. A description of the regulation mechanism and the implications in glycogen metabolism are given. Areas covered: Deregulation of GP has been observed in diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cancers. Therefore, it appears as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of such pathologies. Numbers of inhibitors have been published in academic literature or patented in the last two decades. This review presents the main patent claims published between 2008 and 2012. Expert opinion: Good inhibitors with interesting IC50 and in vivo results are presented. However, such therapeutic strategy raises questions and some answers are proposed to bring new insights in the field.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 04/2013; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of morpholine substituted amino acids (phenylalanine, leucine, lysine and glutamic acid) was synthesized. A fragment-based screening approach was then used to evaluate a series of small heterocycles, including morpholine, oxazoline, dihydro-1,3-oxazine, tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepine, thiazoline, tetrahydro-1,3-pyrimidine, tetrahydro-1,3-diazepine and hexahydro-1H-benzimidazole, as potential inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase a. Thiazoline 7 displayed an improved potency (IC50 of 25 μM) and had good LE and LELP values, as compared to heterocycles 1, 5, 9-13 and 19 (IC50 values of 1.1 mM-23.9 mM). A docking study using the crystal structure of human liver Glycogen Phosphorylase, provided insight into the interactions of heterocycles 5, 7, 9-13 and 19 with Glycogen Phosphorylase.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 01/2014; 84:584–594.