Production and physicochemical properties of functional-butterfat through enzymatic interesterification in a continuous reactor.
ABSTRACT Modified-butterfat (MBF) was synthesized with four blends (8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9, and 4:6:10, by weight) of anhydrous butterfat (ABF), palm stearin (PS) and flaxseed oil (FSO) through enzymatic interesterification in a continuous packed-bed reactor. Flow rate effect of 3, 5, 8 and 10 mL/min on enzymatic interesterification was investigated. By increasing the enzyme contact time with substrates (decreased flow rates), not only did melting and crystallization points shift to lower temperature but also the equivalent carbon number, ECN 36-38 from FSO decreased. Further all reactions were performed at flow rate of 5 mL/min (contact time 140 min) in a continuous reactor packed with 150 g of Lipozyme RM IM. After short path distillation, alpha-linolenic acid composition (%) of 8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9, and 4:6:10 MBFs were 16, 21, 23 and 25%, respectively. The contents of ECN 36-38, and ECN 48-50 decreased in the blends and MBFs for each substrate ratio. ECN 42-46 in the newly produced TAG increased. Melting points of MBFs were 38 degrees C (8:6:6), 35.5 degrees C (6:6:8), 34 degrees C (6:6:9), and 32 degrees C (4:6:10). MBFs interesterified with FSO contained phytosterols (17-36 mg/100 g) and tocopherols (116-173 microg/g). The products of 8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9 and 4:6:10 MBFs were softer (69, 88, 80, and 92%, respectively) than pure butterfat at refrigeration temperature. The polymorphic form changed from beta form (blends) to desirable crystalline structure of beta' form (MBFs). Crystal morphology of MBFs also changed and was composed of small spherulites of varying density.
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ABSTRACT: Structured lipid (SL) for cocoa butter alternative was synthesized by interesterification of coconut oil fraction and palm stearin (6:4 and 8:2, by weight) in a shaking water bath at and 180 rpm. It was performed for various reaction times (1, 2, 3, and 6 hr). The reaction was catalyzed by sn-1,3 specific Lipozyme TLIM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus). SL-solid part was obtained from acetone fractionation at . SL-solid part was blended with other palm oils and fractions for desirable property of cocoa butter alternative (SL-solid part : palm middle fraction : palm stearin solid : palm oil, 70.4:18.4:2.9:8.3, by weight). In reversed-phase HPLC analysis, triacylglycerol species of cocoa butter alternative had partition number of 40 (10.77%), 42 (13.06%), 44~46 (17.38%) and 48 (51.88%). Major fatty acids of cocoa butter alternative were lauric acid (16.5%), myristic acid (12.28%), palmitic acid (46.03%), and linoleic acid (14.75%). Solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic form (Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 10/2010; 39(10).
- Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 03/2014; 115(3):2219-2229. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enzymatic interesterification was conducted with the palm mid fraction (PMF) and stearic ethyl ester for 1, 5, and 9 hr at 46. The reaction was catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM (2, 3, and 4% by weight of total substrates) in a shaking water bath at 180 rpm. As the reaction continued, oleic acid (C18:1) content at the sn-2 position decreased, whereas saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0) content increased. In the high performance chromatography analysis, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol content decreased, whereas 1(3)-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3(1)-stearoyl glycerol (POS) content increased up to the reaction equilibrium. The rate of acyl migration increased with increasing molar ratio and enzyme load as well as reaction time. The optimal reaction conditions for maximizing POS content (53.5 area%) and minimizing acyl migration (23.1 area%) were obtained with a PMF : stearic ethyl ester=1:2 (molar ratio), Lipozyme TLIM 3 wt%, and a reaction time of 5 hr.Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 08/2011; 40(8).