Production and Physicochemical Properties of Functional-Butterfat through Enzymatic Interesterification in a Continuous Reactor
ABSTRACT Modified-butterfat (MBF) was synthesized with four blends (8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9, and 4:6:10, by weight) of anhydrous butterfat (ABF), palm stearin (PS) and flaxseed oil (FSO) through enzymatic interesterification in a continuous packed-bed reactor. Flow rate effect of 3, 5, 8 and 10 mL/min on enzymatic interesterification was investigated. By increasing the enzyme contact time with substrates (decreased flow rates), not only did melting and crystallization points shift to lower temperature but also the equivalent carbon number, ECN 36-38 from FSO decreased. Further all reactions were performed at flow rate of 5 mL/min (contact time 140 min) in a continuous reactor packed with 150 g of Lipozyme RM IM. After short path distillation, alpha-linolenic acid composition (%) of 8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9, and 4:6:10 MBFs were 16, 21, 23 and 25%, respectively. The contents of ECN 36-38, and ECN 48-50 decreased in the blends and MBFs for each substrate ratio. ECN 42-46 in the newly produced TAG increased. Melting points of MBFs were 38 degrees C (8:6:6), 35.5 degrees C (6:6:8), 34 degrees C (6:6:9), and 32 degrees C (4:6:10). MBFs interesterified with FSO contained phytosterols (17-36 mg/100 g) and tocopherols (116-173 microg/g). The products of 8:6:6, 6:6:8, 6:6:9 and 4:6:10 MBFs were softer (69, 88, 80, and 92%, respectively) than pure butterfat at refrigeration temperature. The polymorphic form changed from beta form (blends) to desirable crystalline structure of beta' form (MBFs). Crystal morphology of MBFs also changed and was composed of small spherulites of varying density.
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- "Its chemical composition is complex and includes conjugated linoleic acid and butyric acid , which have been identified as beneficial to health, namely in cancer prevention   . On the other hand, the high content of saturated fatty acids in milkfat has been associated with cardiovascular diseases . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to tune the physical properties of milkfat by enzymatic interesterification with soybean oil in a continuous fluidized bed reactor (FBR) to obtain healthy interesterified fat blends having suitable texture properties for the food industry. The immobilized commercial non-regioselective Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym®435) and sn1,3-regioselective Rhizopus oryzae lipase, immobilized in an organic-inorganic hybrid matrix of polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol, were used as biocatalysts in a FBR. The minimum value of the ascendant flow of the medium for allowing fluidization in the system was 3.13mL·min-1. The reaction was evaluated in terms of the interesterification yield (IY), consistency values and solid fat content (SFC). The IY values of 10.50±1.64% and of 5.70±1.46% were attained for Novozym®435 and for immobilized R. oryzae lipase, respectively. The consistency of the initial 65:35 milkfat/soybean oil mixture (1000gf/cm2) decreased to 732.35±75.30gf/cm2 and to 478.02±71.80gf/cm2 in interesterified blends catalyzed by Novozym®435 or by R. oryzae lipase, respectively. SFC was considered an inadequate parameter for following the interesterification of this blend formulation because the values were similar for initial and for interesterified blends. Free fatty acid levels of 1.5%, the non-notable deactivation of Novozym®435 and a half-life of 190h for R. oryzae lipase were observed during the operation time.European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 05/2015; 117(5):608-619. DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201400316 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two substrate blends (8:6:6 and 6:6:9, by weight) of anhydrous butterfat (ABF), palm stearin (PS), and flaxseed oil (FSO) were interesterified by immobilized lipases. The reaction was carried out in the absence of solvent at 60°C for 24h in a 1-L tank stirred-batch type reactor. In terms of equivalent carbon number (ECN) of triacylglycerol (TAG), the areas of ECN 36-38 (from FSO) and ECN 48-50 (from PS) decreased during the interesterification while ECN 42–46 increased with increasing reaction time. As interesterification time increased, the decreased enthalpy (∆H), peak temperature (T P) and transition range were observed. After short path distillation, interesterified fat (IF) was produced in which α-linolenic acid contents (ALn, mol%) of the 8:6:6 and 6:6:9 IF were 15.7 and 21.7%, respectively. Tocopherol, cholesterol and phytosterol contents in each IF were significantly reduced after short path distillation. In this study, hardness of 6:6:9 IF and 8:6:6 IF were 217 and 800g/cm2, respectively. After interesterification, short spacing at 4.6Å disappeared or weakened, indicating that the predominant polymorphic form had changed from the β form to the desirable crystalline structure of the β′ form. Keywordsα-Linolenic acid-Butterfat-Lipase-catalyzed interesterification-Thermal behaviors-Triacylglycerol compositionJournal of Oil & Fat Industries 06/2010; 87(6):647-657. DOI:10.1007/s11746-010-1541-x · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of high oleic sunflower oil (HO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at different weight ratios (55:45, 60:40, 65:35 and 70:30, HO:FHSBO) was carried out in both a batch-type reactor (BA) and a packed-bed reactor (PBR) to produce zero trans shortening. Interesterified products in both PBR and BA consisted of 34–46 g/100 g saturated fatty acids (SFA) (mainly stearic acid) and 54–66 g/100 g unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) (mainly oleic acid). After interesterification the physical characteristics such as melting point and solid fat content (SFC) were changed in each product. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) result showed that SFC content in PBR was higher than that in BA at each measured temperature. Decrease in tocopherols was also observed, however, the PBR product contained much higher amounts of tocopherols than BA product.Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 09/2009; 43(3):458-464. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2009.09.013 · 2.42 Impact Factor