Pathology and diagnostic options of lower limb compartment syndrome.
ABSTRACT The indication of surgical treatment in lower limb compartment syndrome mostly depends on the clinical signs which can be often uncertain, resulting in delayed insufficient intervention.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the progression of compartment syndrome by measuring of intracompartmental pressure and monitoring of decreased tissular oxygenation, indicating an insufficient secondary microcirculation.
16 patients were examined in our study (12 males, 4 females, mean age: 62.7+/-9.5 years), who underwent acute lower limb revascularization surgery for a critical (lasting more than 4 hours) limb ischemia. The indications were: 5 iliac artery embolizations and 11 femoral artery occlusions. After revascularization, on the second postoperative day, we detected significant lower limb edema and swelling of several grade. To monitor the elevated intracompartmental pressure (ICP) and to evaluate the extremital circulation, we used KODIAG pressure meter and the tissular oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured by near-infrared-spectroscopy.
In 12 cases the ICP exceeded the critical 40 mmHg. In these patients the average StO2 was 50-53%, in spite of complete recanalization. In these cases we made urgent, semi-open fasciotomy. In 4 cases, where the clinical aspect showed compartment syndrome, the measured parameters did not indicate a surgical intervention (ICP: 25-35 mmHg, StO2: around normal).
A novel approach in our examination is that, besides empirical therapeutic guidelines generally applied in clinical practice, we established an objective, parameter-based ("evidence based medicine") surgical indication strategy for the lower limb compartment syndrome. Our parameter results produced by the above pressure and saturation measurements help the clinicians to decide between conservative and operative treatment of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study was to monitor changes of microcirculation in acute compartment syndrome using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and to assess the modified perfusion with a special quantification software. 8 patients with trauma of the lower limb or the upper extremity were enrolled after acute compartment syndrome was diagnosed clinically and by intracompartmental pressure measurement. The qualitative analysis of the corresponding compartment was assessed using B-scan mode and CEUS simultaneously. CEUS was performed using a multifrequence probe (6-9 MHz, LOGIQ E9 GE) after a i.v. bolus injection of 2 × 2.4 ml contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Italy). Digital raw data were stored as cine loops up to 2 minutes. Retrospectively semiquantitative perfusion analysis was performed using time intensity curve analysis and the quantification software QONTRAST(®). 6 out of 8 patients had to be operated due to clinical symptoms and to a pressure perfusion gradient lower than 30 mm Hg. 2 out of 8 were treated conservatively. In all patients haematomas were seen in B-scan mode. No necrosis could be detected. In the TIC analysis low levels of time to peak (20.0 ± 12.1) and area under the curve (118.4 ± 87.8) were observed in acute compartment syndrome. Similarly results have been obtained using the perfusions parameter PEAK (11.1 ± 5.7), time to PEAK (14.7 ± 9.7), regional blood volume (257.1 ± 192.6), and regional blood flow (12.1 ± 6.5) in QONTRAST(®) perfusion software. CEUS may be capable of differing between acute compartment syndrome and imminent compartment syndrome.Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2012; 50(1-2):1-11. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb is a rare but severe intra- and post-partum complication. Prompt diagnosis is essential to avoid permanent functional restriction or even the loss of the affected limb. Clinical signs and symptoms might be nonspecific, especially in the early stages; therefore, knowledge of predisposing risk factors can be helpful. We present the case of a 32-year-old Caucasian woman with acute post-partum compartment syndrome. Acute compartment syndrome is an important differential diagnosis for the sudden onset of intra- or post-partum lower-limb pain. Predisposing factors for the manifestation of acute compartment syndrome in an obstetric environment are augmented intra-partum blood loss, prolonged hypotensive episodes and the use of oxytocin to support or induce labor because of its vasoconstrictive properties. Treatment is prompt surgical decompression by performing fasciotomy in any affected muscular compartments.Journal of Medical Case Reports 01/2011; 5:161.