The "memory of water": an almost deciphered enigma. Dissipative structures in extremely diluted aqueous solutions of the homeopathic medicine
ABSTRACT In the last decade, we have dealt with following to pic: is it true, from the physico-chemical point of view, that water treated following the particular p rocedure characteristic to the homeopathic medicines preparation (leading inexorably to system s without any molecule different from the solvent) is a "new water" really "different" from t he initial one? The answer to this question comes out to be positive, unexpectedly in the frame of th e current scientific paradigm, but strongly supported by a plethora of experimental results. Th e used measurement methodologies are well established physico-chemical techniques: flux calor imetry, conductometry, pHmetry and galvanic cell electrodes potential. Moreover, the analysis o f the experimental results vs. the "arrow of time" was astonishingly relevant. In fact, in a totally u nexpected way, the measured physico-chemical parameters are evolving in time. The water solvent exhibits physico-chemical properties experimentally measurable that are largely changing as a function of: the "lived path", the solute previously dissolved, and the time. In particular w e evidenced two new experimental phenomena (both totally unpredicted) that characterise the ho meopathic dilutions: the presence of a maximum in the measured physico-chemical parameters vs. the sa mples age, and their dependence on the volume in which the homeopathic dilution experiments its a geing. All these new experimental results are strongly indicating the presence of an extended and "ordered" dynamics involving the whole liquid water molecules.
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ABSTRACT: The short-term polyamine response to inoculation, with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), of TMV-inoculated NN (hypersensitive) and nn (susceptible) plants of Nicotiana tabacum (L.) cv. Samsun was investigated. Free and conjugated polyamine concentrations, putrescine biosynthesis, evaluated through arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, and putrescine oxidation, via diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, were analysed during the first 24 h from inoculation. Results were compared with those of mock-inoculated control plants. In NN TMV-inoculated plants undergoing the hypersensitive response (HR), free putrescine and spermidine concentrations had increased after 5 h compared with controls; polyamine conjugates also tended to increase compared with controls. In both virus- and mock-inoculated plants, ADC and ODC activities generally increased whereas DAO activity, which was present in controls, was detectable only in traces in inoculated tissues.In TMV-infected susceptible plants, free putrescine and spermidine concentrations were lower at 5 h relative to controls, as were polyamine conjugates. No differences were revealed in ADC and ODC activities whereas DAO activity was not detectable. These results further support the hypothesis that polyamines are involved in the response of tobacco to TMV and that, only a few hours after inoculation, the response of hypersensitive plants is distinct from that of susceptible ones.New Phytologist 07/2008; 139(3):549 - 553. · 6.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: When human polymorphonuclear basophils, a type of white blood cell with antibodies of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) type on its surface, are exposed to anti-IgE antibodies, they release histamine from their intracellular granules and change their staining properties. The latter can be demonstrated at dilutions of anti-IgE that range from 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(120); over that range, there are successive peaks of degranulation from 40 to 60% of the basophils, despite the calculated absence of any anti-IgE molecules at the highest dilutions. Since dilutions need to be accompanied by vigorous shaking for the effects to be observed, transmission of the biological information could be related to the molecular organization of water.Nature 07/1988; 333(6176):816-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- Journal of Polymer Science. 01/1960; 48(150):393-398.