Hepatic lipase maturation: a partial proteome of interacting factors.
ABSTRACT Tandem affinity purification (TAP) has been used to isolate proteins that interact with human hepatic lipase (HL) during its maturation in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we identified 28 proteins in HL-TAP isolated complexes, 16 of which localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of HL folding and assembly. Of the 12 remaining proteins located outside the ER, five function in protein translation or ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Components of the two major ER chaperone systems were identified, the BiP/Grp94 and the calnexin (CNX)/calreticulin (CRT) systems. All factors involved in CNX/CRT chaperone cycling were identified, including UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT), glucosidase II, and the 57 kDa oxidoreductase (ERp57). We also show that CNX, and not CRT, is the lectin chaperone of choice during HL maturation. Along with the 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp78; BiP) and the 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein (Grp94), an associated peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and protein disulfide isomerase were also detected. Finally, several factors in ERAD were identified, and we provide evidence that terminally misfolded HL is degraded by the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal pathway. We propose that newly synthesized HL emerging from the translocon first associates with CNX, ERp57, and glucosidase II, followed by repeated posttranslational cycles of CNX binding that is mediated by UGGT. BiP/Grp94 may stabilize misfolded HL during its transition between cycles of CNX binding and may help direct its eventual degradation.
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to examine whether expression of human hepatic lipase (hHL) exerted an intracellular effect on hepatic production of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The levels of secreted and cell-associated apoA-I were contrasted between primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null and C57BL/6 mice, and between Lipc-null hepa-tocytes transfected with hHL-encoding or control adenovirus. An HSPG-binding deficient hHL protein (hHLmt) was used to determine the impact of cell surface binding on HL action. Accumulation of apoA-I in conditioned media of primary hepatocytes isolated from Lipc-null mice was increased as compared to that from C57BL/6 mice. Metabolic labeling experiments showed that secretion of 35 S-apoA-I from Lipc-null cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/6 cells. Expression of hHL in Lipc-null hepatocytes, through adenovirus-mediated gene transfer, resulted in decreased synthesis and secretion of 35 S-apoA-I, but not 35 S-apoE, as compared with cells trans-fected with control adenovirus. Expression of HSPG-binding deficient hHLmt in Lipc-null cells also exerted an inhibitory effect on apoA-I production, even though hHLmt displayed impaired exit from the endoplasmic reticu-lum as compared with hHL. Subcellular fractionation revealed that expression of hHL or hHLmt led to increased microsome-association of apoA-I relative to non-transfected control. Expression of hHL negatively impacts hepatic production of apoA-I.Journal of Biomedical Research. 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1) is a critical determinant of plasma lipid metabolism, as demonstrated by severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with its mutations in mice and human subjects. Lmf1 is a chaperone localized to the ER and required for the post-translational maturation and activation of several vascular lipases. Despite its importance in plasma lipid homeostasis, the regulation of Lmf1 remains unexplored. We report here that Lmf1 expression is induced by ER stress in various cell lines and in tunicamycin (TM)-injected mice. Using genetic deficiencies in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and mouse liver, we identified the Atf6α arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR) as being responsible for the upregulation of Lmf1 in ER stress. Experiments with luciferase reporter constructs indicated that ER stress activates the Lmf1 promoter through a GC-rich DNA sequence 264 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. We demonstrated that Atf6α is sufficient to induce the Lmf1 promoter in the absence of ER stress and this effect is mediated by the TM-responsive cis-regulatory element. Conversely, Atf6α deficiency induced by genetic ablation or a dominant-negative form of Atf6α abolished TM-stimulation of the Lmf1 promoter. In conclusion, our results indicate that Lmf1 is a UPR target gene and Atf6α signaling is sufficient and necessary for activation of the Lmf1 promoter. Importantly, the induction of Lmf1 by ER stress appears to be a general phenomenon not restricted to lipase-expressing cells, which suggests a lipase-independent cellular role for this protein in ER homeostasis.The Journal of biological chemistry. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Proteolytic cleavage of synaptosomal-associated protein 25 by the light chain of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (LCA), resulting in a blockade of neurotransmitter release, persists for several months in motor neurons. The L428A/L429A mutation in LCA is known to significantly shorten both proteolytic and neuroparalytic effects of the neurotoxin in mice. To elucidate the cellular mechanism for LCA longevity, we studied the effects of L428A/L429A mutation on the interactome, localization, and stability of LCA expressed in cultured neuronal cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of the LCA interactome showed that the mutation prevented the interaction of LCA with septins. The wild type LCA was concentrated in plasma membrane-associated clusters, co-localizing with septins-2 and septin-7, which accumulated in these clusters only in the presence of LCA. The L428A/L429A mutation decreased co-clustering of LCA and septins and accelerated proteasomal and non-proteasomal degradation of LCA. Similarly, the impairment of septin oligomerization by forchlorfenuron or silencing of septin-2 prevented LCA interaction and clustering with septins and increased LCA degradation. Therefore, the dileucine-mediated LCA-septin co-clustering is crucial for the long-lasting stabilization of LCA-related proteolytic and presumably neuroparalytic activity.Journal of Cell Science 06/2014; · 5.33 Impact Factor