Dose escalation in the radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer with aperture-based intensity modulation and photon beam energy optimization for non-preselected patients.
ABSTRACT To verify the potential of aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (AB-IMRT) to realize dose escalation plans for non-preselected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, using photon beam energy optimization.
Seven cases of NSCLC were retrospectively studied. Clinical reference plans were made at 60 Gy by an experienced dosimetrist. Dose escalation was applied to PTV2, a subvolume within the main PTV1. Escalation plans were optimized by considering beam angles (table and gantry), energy (6 and 23 MV) and weights, for an increasing dose to the PTV2, starting from 66 Gy and keeping 30 fractions.
In five cases, doses over 78 Gy could be achieved before exceeding organs at risk (OARs) standard tolerance. Peripheral overdosages, as well as lung and spinal cord tolerance doses, limited escalation. Means+/-SD V(95%) parameters were (97.3+/-0.9)% for PTV1s and (96.7+/-2.2)% for PTV2s. Doses to OARs were also maintained at acceptable levels. Optimized plans made use of both low- and high-energy beams and had a similar number of monitor units compared to the 60 Gy clinical plans.
The AB-IMRT system can successfully realize dose escalation for a sizeable number of cases. Plans produced contained few large segments, and are applicable to a wide range of tumor volumes and locations.
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ABSTRACT: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at the Royal Marsden Hospital London was introduced in July 2001. Treatment delivery was dynamic using a single-phase technique. Concerns were raised regarding increased clinical workload due to introduction of new technology. The potential increased use of resources was assessed. IMRT patient selection was within guidelines of clinical trials and included patients undergoing prostate plus pelvic lymph node (PPN) irradiation and head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment. Patient planning, quality assurance and treatment times were collected for an initial IMRT patient group. A comparative group of patients with advanced HNC undergoing two- or three-phase conventional radiotherapy, requiring matched photon and electron fields, were also timed. The median overall total planning time for IMRT was greater for HNC patients compared to the PPN cohort. For HNC the overall IMRT planning time was significantly longer than for conventional. The median treatment time for conventional two- or three-phase HNC treatments, encompassing similar volumes to those treated with IMRT, was greater than that for the IMRT HNC patient cohort. A reduction in radiographer man hours per patient of 4.8h was recorded whereas physics time was increased by 4.9h per patient. IMRT currently increases overall planning time. Additional clinician input is required for target volume localisation. Physics time is increased, a significant component of this being patient specific QA. Radiographer time is decreased. For HNC a single phase IMRT treatment has proven to be more efficient than a multiple phase conventional treatment. IMRT has been integrated smoothly and efficiently into the existing treatment working day. This preliminary study suggests that IMRT could be a routine treatment with efficient use of current radiotherapy resources.Radiotherapy and Oncology 01/2006; 77(3):241-6. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report the results observed in a large randomized study comparing radiotherapy alone to combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in unresectable squamous cell and large cell lung carcinoma. Radiation dose was 65 Gy in both groups and chemotherapy included vindesine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and lomustine. One hundred seventy-seven patients received radiotherapy alone, and 176 received the combined treatment. The 2-year survival rate was 14% for patients receiving radiotherapy vs. 21% for patients receiving the combined treatment (P = 0.02). The distant metastasis rate was significantly lower in the group receiving the combined treatment (P < 0.001). Local control at 1 year was poor in both groups (17% and 15%, respectively) and remains a major problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.Lung Cancer 03/1994; 10 Suppl 1:S239-44. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence and clinical/dosimetric predictors of acute and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 207 consecutive patients with NSCLC who were treated with high-dose, definitive 3D-CRT between March 1991 and December 1998. This population consisted of 107 men and 100 women. The median age was 67 years (range 31-90). The following patient and treatment parameters were studied: age, gender, race, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of subcarinal nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy. All doses are reported without heterogeneity corrections. The median prescription dose to the isocenter in this population was 70 Gy (range 60-74) delivered in 2-Gy daily fractions. All patients were treated once daily. Acute and late esophageal toxicities were graded by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Patient and clinical/dosimetric factors were coded and correlated with acute and late Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Of 207 patients, 16 (8%) developed acute (10 patients) or late (13 patients) Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity. Seven patients had both acute and late Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity. One patient died (Grade 5 esophageal toxicity) of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy, maximal point dose to the esophagus >58 Gy, and a mean dose to the entire esophagus >34 Gy were significantly associated with a risk of Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity on univariate analysis. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus >58 Gy retained significance on multivariate analysis. Of 207 patients, 53 (26%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Fourteen (88%) of the 16 patients who developed Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity had received concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, Pearson's chi-square test). No case of Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus of <58 Gy (p = 0.0001, Fisher's exact test, two-tail). Only 2 patients developed Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity in the absence of concurrent chemotherapy; both received a maximal esophageal point dose >69 Gy. All assessable patients who developed Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity had a mean dose to the entire esophagus >34 Gy (p = 0.0351, Pearson's chi-square test). However, the mean dose was not predictive on multivariate analysis. Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose were significantly associated with a risk of Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity in patients with NSCLC treated with high-dose 3D-CRT. In patients who received concurrent chemotherapy, the threshold maximal esophageal point dose for Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity was 58 Gy. An insufficient number of patients developed Grade 3-5 esophageal toxicity in the absence of chemotherapy to allow a valid statistical analysis of the relationship between the maximal esophageal point dose and esophagitis.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2003; 55(2):337-41. · 4.52 Impact Factor