A 31 year old woman with essential hypertension grade III and branch retinal vein occlusion with homozygous C677T MTHFR hyperhomocysteinemia and high Lp(a) levels.
ABSTRACT We report a 31-year old woman with essential hypertension grade III and history of branch retinal vein occlusion in the setting of hyperhomocysteinemia due to homozygous MTHFR gene mutation and elevated Lp(a). The patient was treated successfully with antihypertensive treatment, acetylsalicylic acid and multivitamin complex supplementation.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Individuals homozygous for the T allele of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism have higher plasma homocysteine concentrations (the phenotype) than those with the CC genotype, which, if pathogenetic, should put them at increased risk of stroke. Since this polymorphism is distributed randomly during gamete formation, its association with stroke should not be biased or confounded. We investigated consistency between the expected odds ratio for stroke among TT homozygotes, extrapolated from genotype–phenotype and phenotype–disease studies, and the observed odds ratio from a meta-analysis of genotype–disease association studies. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to June, 2003, for all relevant studies on the association between homocysteine concentration and the MTHFR polymorphism, and until December, 2003, for those on the association between the polymorphism and the risk of stroke. Pooled odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated by random-effects and fixed-effects models. Consistency between expected and observed odds ratios was assessed by interaction test. Findings: 111 studies met the selection criteria. Among 15 635 people without cardiovascular disease, the weighted mean difference in homocysteine concentration between TT and CC homozygotes was 1·93 μmol/L (95% CI 1·38 to 2·47). The expected odds ratio for stroke corresponding to this difference based on previous observational studies was 1·20 (1·10 to 1·31). In our genetic meta-analysis (n=13 928) the odds ratio for stroke was 1·26 (1·14 to 1·40) for TT versus CC homozygotes, similar to the expected odds ratio (p=0·29). Consistency between the odds ratios was preserved in analyses by age-group, ethnic background, and geographical location. Interpretation: The observed increase in risk of stroke among individuals homozygous for the MTHFR T allele is close to that predicted from the differences in homocysteine concentration conferred by this variant. This concordance is consistent with a causal relation between homocysteine concentration and stroke.The Lancet 01/2005; · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence of a positive association between mild hyperhomocysteinemia and arterial vascular disease has been accumulating in the last decade. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia acts as an independent vascular risk factor with equal strength as hypercholesterolemia and smoking. If jointly present with hypertension and smoking, its effect seems synergistic. This could make the outcome of homocysteine-lowering intervention beneficial, particularly in cases with concomitance of conventional vascular risk factors. So far, however, data on the clinical outcome of homocysteine-lowering treatment with a simple, safe, and cheap vitamin regimen are lacking. Trials investigating a beneficial clinical effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment using folic acid in a dose ranging from 0.2 to 5 mg daily, alone or in combination with vitamin B12 with or without vitamin B6 versus placebo, are ongoing. Furthermore, exploration of the unifying mechanism by which increased homocysteine levels may lead to both arterial and venous occlusions is warranted. These lines of investigations have to provide the ultimate proof of causality of hyperhomocysteinemia in vascular disease in the near future.Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 02/2000; 26(3):291-5. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present review examines the clinical and experimental data to support the view that homocysteine and oxidative stress, two alternative risk factors of vascular disease, may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary or essential hypertension. Although the precise mechanism of this disease has not been elucidated, it may be related to impairment of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Thus, the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction could contribute to alterations of the endothelium-dependent vasomotor regulation. Hyperhomocysteinemia limits the bioavailability of nitric oxide, increases oxidative stress, stimulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and alters the elastic properties of the vascular wall. The link between oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia is also biologically plausible, because homocysteine promotes oxidant injury to the endothelium. Cumulated evidence suggests that the diminution of oxidative stress with antioxidants or the correction of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamins-B plus folic acid, could be useful as an adjuvant therapy for essential hypertension. Further studies involving long-term trials could help to assess the tolerability and efficacy of the use of these therapeutic agents.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 11/2003; 42(4):453-61. · 2.38 Impact Factor