Hypothermic preconditioning of endothelial cells attenuates cold-induced injury by a ferritin-dependent process
ABSTRACT Hypothermia for myocardial protection or storage of vascular grafts may damage the endothelium and impair vascular function upon reperfusion/rewarming. Catalytic iron pools and oxidative stress are important mediators of cold-induced endothelial injury. Because endothelial cells are highly adaptive, we hypothesized that hypothermic preconditioning (HPC) protects cells at 0 degrees C by a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ferritin-dependent mechanism. Storage of human coronary artery endothelial cells at 0 degrees C caused the release of lactate dehydrogenase, increases in bleomycin-detectible iron (BDI), and increases in the ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione, signifying oxidative stress. Hypoxia increased injury at 0 degrees C but did not increase BDI or oxidative stress further. HPC at 25 degrees C for 15-72 h attenuated these changes by an amount achievable by pretreating cells with 10-20 microM deferoxamine, an iron chelator, and protected cell viability. Treating cells with hemin chloride at 37 degrees C transiently increased intracellular heme, HO-1, BDI, and ferritin. Elevated heme/iron sensitized cells to 0 degrees C but ferritin was protective. HPC increased iron maximally after 2 h at 25 degrees C and ferritin levels peaked after 15 h. HO-1 was not induced. When HPC-mediated increases in ferritin were blocked by deferoxamine, protection at 0 degrees C was diminished. We conclude that HPC-mediated endothelial protection from hypothermic injury is an iron- and ferritin-dependent process.
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- "Rotenone Complex I inhibitor, ischemic tolerance  Antimycin A Complex III inhibitor, ischemic tolerance  Diazoxide kATP channel opener, ischemic tolerance  Cyanide Complex IV inhibitor, ischemic tolerance  Cobalt chloride Chemical hypoxia/HIF-1 activation   Carbon monoxide ROS-mediated prevention of apoptosis  Isoflurane Induction of pre-and postconditioning   Short episodes of ischemia Ischemic tolerance    Hypoxia/intermittent hypoxia Ischemic tolerance   Hyperoxia Ischemic tolerance   Hyperthermal stress Ischemic tolerance  Hypothermal stress Ischemic tolerance  Remote preconditioning Ischemic tolerance    Physical exercise Production of beneficial ROS  Hydrogen peroxide Ischemic tolerance   Ozone Ischemic tolerance   Beneficial effect of a cholesterol oxidation product 24-S-hydroxycholesterol (24-SOHC) is endogenously produced in the brain and plays an important role in brain cholesterol homeostasis. Okabe et al. recently showed that 24-SOHS could elicit an adaptive response in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells . "
ABSTRACT: It is now well established that reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and a basal level of oxidative stress are essential for cell survival. It is also well known that while severe oxidative stress often leads to widespread oxidative damage and cell death, a moderate level of oxidative stress, induced by a variety of stressors, can yield great beneficial effects on adaptive cellular responses to pathological challenges in aging and aging-associated disease tolerance such as ischemia tolerance. Here in this review, I term this moderate level of oxidative stress as positive oxidative stress, which usually involves imprinting molecular signatures on lipids and proteins via formation of lipid peroxidation by-products and protein oxidation adducts. As ROS/RNS are short-lived molecules, these molecular signatures can thus execute the ultimate function of ROS/RNS. Representative examples of lipid peroxidation products and protein oxidation adducts are presented to illustrate the role of positive oxidative stress in a variety of pathological settings, demonstrating that positive oxidative stress could be a valuable prophylactic and/or therapeutic approach targeting aging and aging-associated diseases.01/2014; 2(1). DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.01.002
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ABSTRACT: Objectives: The effect of hypothermia on cardiomyocyte injury induced by oxidative stress remains unclear. The authors investigated the effects of hypothermia on apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes exposed to oxidative stress. Methods: Cardiomyocytes (H9c2) derived from embryonic rat heart cell culture were exposed to either normothermic (37°C) or hypothermic (31°C) environments before undergoing oxidative stress via treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The degree of apoptosis was determined by annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) staining. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was compared after H 2O2 exposure between normo- and hypothermic-pretreated groups. Mitochondrial dysfunction in both groups was measured by differential reductase activity and transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Results: Hydrogen peroxide induced significant apoptosis in both normothermic and hypothermic cardiomyocytes. Hypothermia ameliorated apoptosis as demonstrated by decreased annexin V staining (33 ± 1% vs. 49 ± 4%; p < 0.05) and TUNEL staining (27 ± 17% vs. 80 ±25%; p < 0.01). The amount of intracellular ROS increased after H2O2 treatment and was higher in the hypothermic group than that in the normothermic group (237.9 ± 31.0% vs. 146.6 ± 20.6%; p < 0.05). In the hypothermic group, compared with the normothermic group, after H2O2 treatment mitochondrial reductase activity was greater (72.0 ± 17.9% vs. 27.0 ± 13.3%; p < 0.01) and the mitochondria ΔΨm was higher (101.0 ± 22.6% vs. 69.7 ± 12.9%; p < 0.05). Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with the antioxidant ascorbic acid diminished the hypothermia-induced increase in intracellular ROS and prevented the beneficial effects of hypothermia on apoptosis and mitochondrial function. Conclusions: Hypothermia at 31°C can protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced injury by decreasing apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction through intracellular ROS-dependent pathways.Academic Emergency Medicine 09/2009; 16(9):872-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00495.x · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 12/2009; 13(3):279-347. DOI:10.1089/ars.2009.2788 · 7.67 Impact Factor