Identification of putative peptide paracrines/hormones in the water flea Daphnia pulex (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Cladocera) using transcriptomics and immunohistochemistry.
ABSTRACT The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex has emerged as a model species for many biological fields, in particular environmental toxicology and toxicogenomics. Recently, this species has been the subject of an extensive transcriptome project, resulting in the generation and public deposition of over 150,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This resource makes D. pulex an excellent model for protein discovery using bioinformatics. Here, in silico searches of the D. pulex EST database were conducted to identify transcripts encoding putative peptide precursors. Moreover, the mature peptides contained within the deduced prepro-hormones were predicted using online peptide processing programs and homology to known arthropod isoforms. In total, 63 putative peptide-encoding ESTs were identified encompassing 14 distinct peptide families/subfamilies: A-type allatostatin, B-type allatostatin, C-type allatostatin, bursicon (both alpha and beta subunit peptides), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)/ion transport peptide (both CHH- and moult-inhibiting hormone-like subfamilies), diuretic hormone (calcitonin-like), ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH), FMRFamide (both neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F subfamilies), orcokinin and pigment dispersing hormone. From these transcripts, the structures of 76 full-length/partial peptides were predicted, which included the first C-type allatostatin-like peptide identified from a crustacean, the first crustacean calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, an undescribed CCAP isoform, two hitherto unknown ETH variants, and two new orcokinins. Neuronal localization of several of the identified peptide families was confirmed using immunohistochemitry (i.e. A-type allatostatin, CCAP, FMRFamide and PDH). In addition, immunohistochemical analyses identified other putative neuropeptides for which no ESTs had been found (i.e. corazonin, insect kinin, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide). Collectively, the data presented here not only catalog an extensive array of putative D. pulex peptide paracrines/hormones, but also provide a strong foundation for future investigations of the effects of environmental/anthropogenic stressors on peptidergic control in this model organism.
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ABSTRACT: In many animal species, copulation elicits a number of physiological and behavioral changes in the female partner. In Drosophila melanogaster, the main molecular effector of these physiological responses has been identified as sex peptide (SP). The sex peptide receptor (SPR) has been characterized and recently, its activation by Drosophila myoinhibiting peptides (MIPs) - in addition to SP - has been demonstrated. The myoinhibiting peptides are members of a conserved peptide family, also known as B-type allatostatins, which generally feature the C-terminal motif -WX6Wamide.General and Comparative Endocrinology 02/2013; 188. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.02.014 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insect neuropeptides control various biological processes including growth, development, homeostasis and reproduction. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone (CT/DH) is one such neuropeptide that has been shown to affect salt and water transport by Malpighian tubules of several insects. With an increase in the number of sequenced insect genomes, CT/DHs have been predicted in several insect species, making it easier to characterize the gene encoding this hormone and determine its function in the species in question. This mini review summarizes the current knowledge on insect CT/DHs, focusing on mRNA and peptide structures, distribution patterns, physiological roles, and receptors in insects.Insect biochemistry and molecular biology 07/2012; 42(10):816-25. DOI:10.1016/j.ibmb.2012.06.006 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rhodnius prolixus undergoes a period of rapid diuresis after ingesting large blood meals. Neurohormones with either diuretic or anti-diuretic activity control diuresis by acting on several tissues including the Malpighian tubules. One of the neurohormones that potentially plays a role in diuresis is diuretic hormone 31 (DH(31)) which belongs to the insect calcitonin-like family of diuretic hormones. Here we determine the complete cDNA sequences of three Rhopr-DH(31) splice variants (Rhopr-DH(31)-A, Rhopr-DH(31)-B and Rhopr-DH(31)-C) and characterize their expression in unfed fifth-instar R. prolixus. Reverse transcriptase-PCR demonstrates that Rhopr-DH(31) is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of unfed fifth-instars. However, the expression of the three splice variants differs with Rhopr-DH(31)-B expression being the highest followed by Rhopr-DH(31)-A and Rhopr-DH(31)-C, as determined using semi-quantitative Southern blot analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization reveals that Rhopr-DH(31) is expressed in a variety of cells in the CNS, including some neurosecretory cells.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2011; 331(1):79-88. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2010.08.012 · 4.24 Impact Factor