The effect on patellofemoral joint stability of selective cutting of lateral retinacular and capsular structures.
ABSTRACT Patient selection for lateral retinacular release (LRR) and its efficacy are controversial. Iatrogenic medial subluxation can occur with inappropriate LRR. The aim of this study was to determine the reduction in patellofemoral stability with progressively more extensive LRR. The force required to displace the patella 10mm medially and laterally in nine cadaveric knees was measured with and without loading of the quadriceps and iliotibial band. The knee was tested intact, then after progressive release beginning proximal to the patella (PR), the mid-level between the proximal and distal limit of the patella (MR) where the fibres are more transverse, then distally till Gerdy's tubercle (DR) and finally the joint capsule (CR). Both medial and lateral stability decreased with progressive releases, larger for the medial. The MR caused a significant reduction of lateral stability between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. There was an 8% reduction in medial stability at 0 degrees flexion with a complete LRR (DR). A comparable reduction in medial stability in the loaded knee at 20 degrees and 30 degrees flexion was obtained with MR alone, with no further reduction after DR. A capsular release caused a further reduction in medial stability at 0 degrees and 20 degrees and this was marked in the unloaded knee. In extension, the main lateral restraint was the joint capsule. At 30 degrees flexion, the transverse fibres were the main contributor to the lateral restraint.
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ABSTRACT: Acute patellar dislocation is a common knee injury that occurs most often in adolescents, frequently associated with sporting and physical activities. Patellar re-dislocation after the first episode appears to depend primarily on the medial patellofemoral ligament injury which represents the primary ligamentous restraint, providing about 50-60 % of the restraining force against lateral patellar displacement. Clinically, up to 94-100 % of patients suffer from medial patellofemoral ligament rupture after first-time patellar dislocation. Controversy regarding how patients with first patellar dislocation should be managed still exists. Though most authors have reported good results with the conservative treatment after a first-time dislocation, several circumstances may warrant surgical intervention. A surgical approach would be necessary in the presence of severe cartilage damage or a relevant disruption of the medial stabilizers with subluxation of the patella. In these cases, the repair/reconstruction of medial stabilizers should follow the treatment of the chondral injury. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction may be a more reliable method of stabilizing the patella than its repair, which has limitations related to the medial patellofemoral ligament injury location. Nowadays, there is no evidence available where osseous abnormalities should be addressed in addition to restoring the medial patellofemoral ligament.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 12/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic patellofemoral instability may lead to pain and early osteoarthrosis. Recurrent dislocations of the patella, lateral subluxation and chronic dislocation are summarized under this generic term. There are five different factors which may be responsible of the development of chronic patellofemoral instability: 1) elongation of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 2) patella alta, 3) increased distance between tibial tuberosity and trochlea groove (TTTG) distance, 4) trochlea dysplasia and 5) torsional malalignment. To rule out these factors clinical examination, radiological diagnostics (luxation, subluxation in the Defilée view, trochlea morphology, patella alta) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of TTTG distance and trochlea morphology are crucial. The indications of operative treatment are chronic pain with subluxation, chronic dislocation and recurrent dislocation. Currently the former frequently and universally used lateral release is only indicated in cases of subluxation and positive tilt. Biomechanical studies have shown that a lateral release will otherwise increase patellofemoral instability. The choice of the surgical technique depends on the factors underlying patellofemoral instability, the conditions of growth plate and cartilage damage. Among the different surgical options proximal and distal realignment procedures are differentiated. In cases of MPFL elongation and mild passive instability a medial reefing might be successful. In cases of MPFL elongation, high passive instability up to 30° of flexion (with or without trochlear dysplasia) MPFL reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. A trochleoplasty is rarely indicated. This treatment may be considered in cases of high grade trochlea dysplasia and passive instability at more than 30° of flexion. If the TTTG distance is increased (>20 mm) or in cases of patella alta distal realignment with tibial tubercle transfer should be considered. This operation might also be useful in the presence of lateral cartilage damage as an anteromedialization of the patella.Der Unfallchirurg 05/2012; 115(5):397-409. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Patellofemoral pathology is common, and patellofemoral dislocation mainly affects adolescents and young adults. We conducted a meta-analysis exclusively of RCTs to compare the clinical outcomes of patellar dislocation patients managed operatively versus non-operatively. After systematic review of electronic databases and websites, a total of 7 RCTs reporting data on 402 subjects were included. The methodological quality of the literature was assessed using the PEDro critical appraisal tool. Mean differences (MDs) and risk ratio (RR) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Data synthesis showed a lower rate of recurrent patellar dislocation post-treatment in patients managed operatively compared to non-operatively (P = 0.01). The results suggest a difference in outcomes between the treatment strategies. However the limited number of studies and high risk of inherent bias indicate that future studies involving more patients in better-designed randomized controlled trials will be required.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/8011948721221355.Diagnostic Pathology 03/2014; 9(1):60. · 2.41 Impact Factor