National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 01/2007; 85.
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies have suggested that beta-carotene supplementation may increase the risk of lung cancer, particularly among smokers or former smokers. Beta-carotene, a provitamin A, is available in multivitamins. In the current study, the authors investigated the risk of lung cancer associated with beta-carotene in smokers or former smokers and surveyed the beta-carotene content in national brand multivitamins. The authors systemically reviewed the published literature using a search of the MEDLINE database and performed a meta-analysis of large randomized trials that reported on the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers or former smokers. A sample of multivitamins was evaluated for their beta-carotene content and the suggested daily dosage. Four studies contributing 109,394 subjects were available for analysis. The average daily beta-carotene dosage in these trials ranged from 20 to 30 mg daily. Among current smokers, beta-carotene supplementation was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10-1.39). Among former smokers, there was no significant increase noted (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.84-1.45). In a sample of 47 common multivitamins, beta-carotene was present in 70% of the identified formulas. The median dosage of beta-carotene was 0.3 mg (range, 0-17.2 mg) daily. The beta-carotene content was found to be significantly higher among multivitamins sold to improve visual health than among other multivitamins, with a median daily dosage of 3 mg (range, 0-24 mg). High-dose beta-carotene supplementation appears to increase the risk of lung cancer among current smokers. Although beta-carotene was prevalent in multivitamins, high-dose beta-carotene was observed among multivitamin formulas sold to promote visual health.
    Cancer 08/2008; 113(1):150-7. DOI:10.1002/cncr.23527 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing use of vitamins has been documented worldwide in children and adolescents, and potential for vitamin-drug interactions exists. The aim of this study was to identify vitamin use by children visiting a pediatric emergency department (ED). A survey of parents and/or patients 0-18 years was conducted at a large pediatric ED in Canada. A total of 1804 families were interviewed. The main outcome measure was prevalence of vitamin use by children in the preceding 3 months. A third (32.3%) of the patients in our cohort had used vitamins in the preceding 3 months, and 48% of them were taking vitamins daily. Over 8% of all children used vitamins within the last 24 h. The use of vitamins was higher with older patient and parental age (P<0.001), chronic patient illness (P<0.001), completed immunization (P<0.001), concurrent patient use of prescribed medications (P=0.02), higher parental education (P<0.01), and English as a primary language spoken at home (P=0.002). Prevalence of vitamin use among children in the ED is 32% in the preceding 3 months and 8% within the last 24 h. In light of these findings, pediatricians should ask about vitamin use and discuss with parents potential interactions and possible adverse effects.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 02/2010; 25(1):131-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00816.x · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Cancer survivors are often highly motivated to seek information about food choices, physical activity, and dietary supplements to improve their treatment outcomes, quality of life, and overall survival. To address these concerns, the American Cancer Society (ACS) convened a group of experts in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer survivorship to evaluate the scientific evidence and best clinical practices related to optimal nutrition and physical activity after the diagnosis of cancer. This report summarizes their findings and is intended to present health care providers with the best possible information with which to help cancer survivors and their families make informed choices related to nutrition and physical activity. The report discusses nutrition and physical activity guidelines during the continuum of cancer care, briefly highlighting important issues during cancer treatment and for patients with advanced cancer, but focusing largely on the needs of the population of individuals who are disease free or who have stable disease following their recovery from treatment. It also discusses select nutrition and physical activity issues such as body weight, food choices, food safety, and dietary supplements; issues related to selected cancer sites; and common questions about diet, physical activity, and cancer survivorship. CA Cancer J Clin 2012.
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