Molecular assemblies and membrane domains in multivesicular endosome dynamics.
ABSTRACT Along the degradation pathway, endosomes exhibit a characteristic multivesicular organization, resulting from the budding of vesicles into the endosomal lumen. After endocytosis and transport to early endosomes, activated signaling receptors are incorporated into these intralumenal vesicles through the action of the ESCRT machinery, a process that contributes to terminate signaling. Then, the vesicles and their protein cargo are further transported towards lysosomes for degradation. Evidence also shows that intralumenal vesicles can undergo "back-fusion" with the late endosome limiting membrane, a route exploited by some pathogens and presumably followed by proteins and lipids that need to be recycled from within the endosomal lumen. This process depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix/AIP1, and is presumably coupled to the invagination of the endosomal limiting membrane at the molecular level via ESCRT proteins. In this review, we discuss the intra-endosomal transport routes in mammalian cells, and in particular the different mechanisms involved in membrane invagination, vesicle formation and fusion in a space inaccessible to proteins known to control intracellular membrane traffic.
Article: Endosomally stored MHC class II does not contribute to antigen presentation by dendritic cells at inflammatory conditions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHCII) is constitutively expressed by immature dendritic cells (DC), but has a short half-life as a consequence of its transport to and degradation in lysosomes. For its transfer to lysosomes, MHCII is actively sorted to the intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of multivesicular bodies (MVB), a process driven by its ubiquitination. ILV have, besides their role as an intermediate compartment in lysosomal transfer, also been proposed to function as a site for MHCII antigen loading and temporal storage. In that scenario, DC would recruit antigen-loaded MHCII to the cell surface in response to a maturation stimulus by allowing ILV to fuse back with the MVB delimiting membrane. Other studies, however, explained the increase in cell surface expression during DC maturation by transient upregulation of MHCII synthesis and reduced sorting of newly synthesized MHCII to lysosomes. Here, we have characterized the relative contributions from the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways and found that the vast majority of antigen-loaded MHCII that is stably expressed at the plasma membrane by mature DC is synthesized after exposure to inflammatory stimuli. Pre-existing endosomal MHCII contributed only when it was not yet sorted to ILV at the moment of DC activation. Together with previous records, our current data are consistent with a model in which passage of MHCII through ILV is not required for antigen loading in maturing DC and in which sorting to ILV in immature DC provides a one-way ticket for lysosomal degradation.Traffic 04/2011; 12(8):1025-36. · 4.92 Impact Factor
Article: Chikungunya virus adaptation to Aedes albopictus mosquitoes does not correlate with acquisition of cholesterol dependence or decreased pH threshold for fusion reaction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito transmitted alphavirus that recently caused several large scale outbreaks/epidemics of arthritic disease in tropics of Africa, Indian Ocean basin and South-East Asia. This re-emergence event was facilitated by genetic adaptation (E1-A226V substitution) of CHIKV to a newly significant mosquito vector for this virus; Aedes albopictus. However, the molecular mechanism explaining the positive effect of the E1-A226V mutation on CHIKV fitness in this vector remains largely unknown. Previously we demonstrated that the E1-A226V substitution is also associated with attenuated CHIKV growth in cells depleted by cholesterol. In this study, using a panel of CHIKV clones that varies in sensitivity to cholesterol, we investigated the possible relationship between cholesterol dependence and Ae. albopictus infectivity. We demonstrated that there is no clear mechanistic correlation between these two phenotypes. We also showed that the E1-A226V mutation increases the pH dependence of the CHIKV fusion reaction; however, subsequent genetic analysis failed to support an association between CHIKV dependency on lower pH, and mosquito infectivity phenotypes. the E1-A226V mutation probably acts at different steps of the CHIKV life cycle, affecting multiple functions of the virus.Virology Journal 07/2011; 8:376. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ligand binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell surface activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Activated, ligand-bound receptors are internalized, and this process may contribute to termination of signaling or enable signaling from intracellular sites. ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) complexes may contribute to termination of signaling by sorting receptors into intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes from which the receptors continue into lysosomes for degradation. We showed that depletion of ESCRTs, which causes the retention of the EGFR in endosomes, increased the activation of the EGFR and its downstream kinases but had little effect on the overall profile and amplitude of the EGF-induced transcriptional response. In contrast, interfering with receptor endocytosis or ubiquitination to keep the EGFR at the cell surface stimulated increases in the abundance of many EGF-induced transcripts, similar to those induced by EGFR overexpression. We also found that the complete EGF transcriptional program was rapidly activated after ligand binding to the receptor. We conclude that the transcriptional response is elicited primarily by receptor molecules at the cell surface.Science Signaling 01/2012; 5(215):ra21. · 7.50 Impact Factor