Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
ABSTRACT Apocrine carcinoma of the breast, which frequently expresses oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) in the absence of ER-alpha and only infrequently is treated endocrinologically, gives an opportunity to investigate the clinicopathological role of ER-beta in breast cancer independent of ER-alpha expression or tamoxifen treatment. Several isotypes of ER-beta, ER-beta1-5 etc., have been identified thus far; however, the clinicopathological importance of each ER-beta isotype in breast cancer is still uncertain. Here we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological importance of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx (ER-beta2) in apocrine carcinomas, immunohistochemically examining expressions of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx in 47 apocrine carcinomas. Positivity for ER-beta1 and ER-betacx was observed in 41 (87%) and 18 (38%) of 47 cases, respectively. ER-beta1 positivity was related to smaller tumor size (P=0.0359), lower histological grade (P=0.0322), and higher disease-free survival (P<0.0001), whereas ER-betacx status was related to none of these parameters. ER-beta1 positivity was also associated with favorable clinical outcome in 24 so-called triple-negative (ER-alpha-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative) apocrine carcinomas. ER-beta1 itself, independent of ER-alpha expression and tamoxifen treatment, seems to have a tumor-suppressive effect, at least in apocrine carcinomas. Further study of ER-beta1 is desired to optimize breast cancer treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER) β was discovered over a decade ago. The design of most studies on this receptor was based on knowledge of its predecessor, ERα. Although breast cancer (BCa) has been a main focus of ERβ research, its precise roles in breast carcinogenesis remain elusive. Data from in vitro models have not always matched those from observational or clinical studies. Several inherent factors may contribute to these discrepancies: (a) several ERβ spliced variants are expressed at the protein level, and isoform-specific antibodies are unavailable for some variants; (b) post-translational modifications of the receptor regulate receptor functions; (c) the role of the receptor differs significantly depending on the type of ligands, cis-elements, and co-regulators that interact with the receptor; and (d) the diversity of distribution of the receptor among intracellular organelles of BCa cells. This review addresses the gaps in knowledge in ERβ research as it pertains to BCa regarding the following questions: (1) is ERβ a tumor suppressor in BCa?; (2) do ERβ isoforms play differential roles in breast carcinogenesis?; (3) do nuclear signaling and extranuclear ERβ signaling differ in BCa?; (4) what are the consequences of post-translational modifications of ERβ in BCa?; (5) how do co-regulators and interacting proteins increase functional diversity of ERβ?; and (6) how do the types of ligand and regulatory cis-elements affect the action of ERβ in BCa?. Insights gained from these key questions in ERβ research should help in prevention, diagnosis/prognosis, and treatment of BCa.Steroids 03/2012; 77(7):727-37. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.03.008 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, little is known about the consequences of co-expression of ERα with the second estrogen receptor, ERβ, and its isoforms in light of their joint prognostic value. Previously reported correlations have been based mostly on independent ERα and ERβ expression levels in breast tumors. To address whether the expression ratio of ERα and ERβ and its isoforms may be a more important parameter than their absolute levels, we analyzed relative mRNA expression ratios of ERβ1 to ERβ2 and ERα in 74 clinical samples of invasive breast cancer including 39 early-onset and 35 late-onset breast cancers. Expression levels were correlated with clinical and histopathological parameters and disease-free interval. A specific correlation of ERβ1 expression levels with tumor size was detected in early-onset breast cancer patients and of ERβ2 levels with tumor size in late-onset patients. Expression of both ERβ isoforms inversely correlated with expression of the two estrogen regulated genes, progesterone receptor and pS2 in both groups. Higher levels of ERβ2 than ERβ1 isoform were associated with a better outcome in late-onset patients. Our results suggest that different isoforms of ERβ may be involved in suppression of tumor growth in young and elder patients and may have different prognostic values.Cancer letters 02/2012; 321(1):73-9. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.02.022 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this chapter, I summarise the data collected in the literature on structure and mechanics of smooth attachment pads of insects. The ultrastructure, surface pattern, origin of different smooth pads, and their evolution are described. Results of mechanical testing of their material properties (elasticity, viscoelasticity, adhesion, friction) and basic physical forces contributing to adhesion are discussed. The influence of different factors, such as substrate roughness and stiffness of the pad, on contact forces is shown. Chemical composition of pad fluid, which is an important component of an adhesive function, is reviewed. Such structural features of pads, as anisotropic fibre orientation, hierarchical organisation of the fibrous architecture of the pads, and their surface microstructure are discussed in relationship to their mechanical effects. Data from insects are compared to those obtained from representatives of other animal groups, such as Echinodermata, Arachnida, and Mammalia. Finally, biomimetic implications of the results are briefly presented.Advances in insect physiology 01/2007; DOI:10.1016/S0065-2806(07)34002-2 · 2.68 Impact Factor