Heat shock proteins 27, 60 and 70 as prognostic markers of prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells against stress-associated injury and are overexpressed in several malignant tumors. We aimed to investigate their value as prognostic markers in prostate cancer. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed of 289 prostate cancers from radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens with median follow-up of 48.9 months. Slides were immunostained for HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70. Intensity and extent of immunoreactivity (IR) and their product (IRp) was evaluated by two observers. The IRp of HSP27 and HSP60, but not of HSP70, significantly predicted biochemical recurrence (p=0.014, 0.034 and 0.160, respectively). Recurrence-free survival in patients with strong HSP27 and HSP60 staining was shorter than in those with weak expression (p=0.019 and 0.001, respectively). IRp of HSP27 and HSP60 correlated with Gleason score (p<0.01). HSP60 was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence in multivariate analysis, including extraprostatic extension, margin status, seminal vesicle invasion and Gleason score. Weighted kappa for interobserver agreement of HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70 IR was 0.613-0.823 for intensity and 0.584-0.719 for IRp, but only 0.036-0.244 for extent, raising the question whether staining extent should be estimated on TMA. We conclude that HSP27 and HSP60 are predictors of biochemical recurrence after RP.
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl] cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.Cancers. 01/2014; 6(2):998-1019.
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ABSTRACT: This study compared heat shock proteins Hsp60, Hsp72 and Hsp73, along with p63 and androgen receptor (AR) immunoexpression between 16 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 11 prostatic carcinomas (PCa) in dogs. The proportion of Hsp60-positive cells was higher in PCa compared with BPH (P = 0.033), whereas the frequency and intensity of Hsp73 immunostaining did not differ significantly between the two groups. Hsp72-immunostained nuclei formed a discontinuous layer along the basement membrane in BPH, whereas cells in this layer in PCa were negative or weakly positive. Hsp72 nuclear score showed significant positive associations with both p63 (P = 0.016) and AR (P = 0.009) scores. Double immunofluorescence revealed Hsp72-p63 and Hsp72-AR co-expressions in basal cell nuclei. Aberrant cytoplasmic p63 immunolabelling was observed in 3 of 11 PCa cases. These results suggest a role of the combined expression of Hsp72, p63 and AR in basal epithelial cells in canine BPH and PCa.Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 07/2014; · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With prostate cancer (PCa), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) portend a poor clinical prognosis. Their unknown biology precludes rational therapeutic design. We demonstrate that CTC and DTC cell lines, established from mice bearing human PCa orthotopic implants, exhibit increased cellular invasion in vitro, increased metastasis in mice, and express increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition biomarkers. Further, they are selectively resistant to growth inhibition by mitoxantrone-like agents. These findings demonstrate that CTC formation is accompanied by phenotypic progression without obligate reversion. Their increased metastatic potential, selective therapeutic resistance, and differential expression of potential therapeutic targets provide a rational basis to test further interventions.Cancer letters. 07/2014;