Rheumatoid atlantoaxial subluxation can be prevented by intensive use of traditional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the 5-year incidence of cervical spine disorders in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated by 2 different disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) strategies.
In a national, multicenter, prospective FIN-RACo-trial, a cohort of 199 patients with early, clinically active RA was randomly assigned to treatment with a combination of 3 DMARD and prednisolone (Combi group) or with a single DMARD (Single group) with or without prednisolone, aiming to induce remission. After 2 years, the DMARD therapy was unrestricted. Lateral view cervical spine radiographs during full flexion and extension were taken at the 5-year followup visits. The presence of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (aAAS), atlantoaxial impaction (AAI), and subaxial subluxation (SAS) was assessed in the 149 patients with radiographs available (80 Single and 69 Combi).
At the 5-year visits, aAAS, AAI, and SAS were found in 13 (9%), 6 (4%), and 9 (6%) patients, respectively. The corresponding Single/Combi group ratios were 11/2, 5/1, and 5/4. Of the baseline data, only poor physical function [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ); p = 0.024] and Single treatment strategy (p = 0.019) were significantly associated with aAAS. Worse HAQ scores and Disease Activity Score 28 values were found in patients who developed aAAS during the 5-year followup.
RA patients with sustained clinical disease activity and poor HAQ are at increased risk of developing aAAS. The development of aAAS during the first 5 years of RA was rare among the patients treated with a combination of DMARD for at least 2 years from the diagnosis. Intensive treatment with traditional DMARD prevents or retards the development of aAAS in patients with recent-onset RA.
- SourceAvailable from: uchile.cl
Article: Columna cervical reumática[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: La artritis reumatoidea (AR) afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. Hasta un 86% de los pacientes presenta alteraciones a nivel cervical. Los patrones de inestabilidad cervical asociados a la artritis reumatoidea son: inestabilidad atlanto-axial, impactación atlanto-axial y subluxación subaxial. Una vez que aparecen alteraciones neurológicas su progresión puede ser rápida y llevar incluso a la muerte. El tratamiento de la AR es fundamentalmente médico. Los medicamentos y esquemas actuales podrían prevenir o retardar la aparición de alteraciones a nivel atlanto-axial. El examen clínico y radiológico periódico permite detectar a los pacientes que ya presentan compromiso neurológico, o a los que están en riesgo de desarrollarlo, en cuyos casos debe considerarse la cirugía como opción terapéutica. La recuperación neurológica post-quirúrgica depende del nivel de compromiso neurológico previo, lo que refuerza la importancia de la detección y derivación precoz de los pacientes en riesgo. El tratamiento quirúrgico debe llevarse a cabo en centros especializados, por grupos multidisciplinarios. Esto, junto con la intervención temprana, ayudaría a reducir las complicaciones peri-operatorias.01/2009;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis commonly involves the upper cervical spine and can cause significant neurologic morbidity and mortality. However, there is no consensus on the optimal timing for surgical intervention: whether surgery should be performed prophylactically or once neurologic deficits have become apparent. A systematic review of the literature was performed to analyze neurologic outcome (Ranawat) and survival time (Kaplan-Meier) after surgical or conservative treatment using the MOOSE (Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system) criteria. Twenty-five observational studies were selected. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) could be found. All of the studies had a high risk of bias. Twenty-three studies reported the neurologic outcome after surgery for 752 patients. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I and II patients. Ranawat III patients did not fully recover. The 10-year survival rates were 77%, 63%, 47%, and 30% for Ranawat I, II, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. The Ranawat IIIB patients had a significantly worse outcome. Another 185 patients treated conservatively were described in 7 studies. Neurologic deterioration rarely occurred in Ranawat I patients, but was almost inevitable in Ranawat II, IIIA, and IIIB patients. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a 10-year overall survival rate of 40%. There are no RCTs that compared surgery with conservative treatment. In observational studies, surgical neurologic outcomes were better than conservative treatment in all patients with cervical spine involvement, and in asymptomatic patients with no neurologic impairment (Ranawat I) the outcomes were similar; however, the evidence is weak. Survival time of surgical and conservative treatment could not be compared.Arthritis & Rheumatism 11/2009; 61(12):1743-52. · 7.48 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the frequency of cervical spine (C-spine) involvement, and associated risk factors for this disorder and its progression in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). From 1995 to 2008, we recruited patients with RA attending the rheumatology clinic of a single tertiary care hospital, and evaluated 1,120 of the patients who had neck pain for C-spine involvement. A diagnosis of C-spine involvement was made in 28.6% of patients evaluated, and within this group, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) and subaxial subluxation were found in 89.7 and 15%, respectively. Of the 1,120 patients, 570 patients were followed for more than 3 years. Comparing the clinical characteristics of 193 patients with C-spine involvement and 377 patients without C-spine involvement, we found the associations with female gender, RA diagnosis at or before age 45, erosive changes in hand or foot radiographs, C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates at the time of first visit, and combination disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. We found using logistic regression analysis that significant predictors of C-spine involvement included erosion in hand or foot radiographs (OR = 2.22, p = 0.001) and RA diagnosis at or before age 45 (OR = 2.26, p < 0.001). Among 137 patients followed for more than 3 years, for whom at least two consecutive X-rays were available, we observed radiographic progression in 60.4%. Patients with and without radiologic evidence for cervical progression did not differ significantly in clinical characteristics. In conclusion, Korean patients with RA frequently show radiographic evidence for progressive involvement of the cervical spine. Significant risk factors for C-spine involvement may be associated with erosive peripheral joint disease and RA diagnosis at an early age.Rheumatology International 10/2011; 31(10):1363-8. · 2.21 Impact Factor