Highlights of a new type of intercellular communication: microvesicle-based information transfer. Inflamm Res

Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
Agents and Actions (Impact Factor: 2.35). 02/2009; 58(1):1-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00011-008-8210-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-covered cell fragments released by most cell types during apoptosis or activation. They are increasingly considered to play a pivotal role in information transfer between cells. Their presence and role have been proven in several physiological and pathological processes, such as immune modulation in inflammation and pregnancy, or blood coagulation and cancer. MVs represent a newly recognized system of intercellular communications. They not only may serve as prognostic markers in different diseases, but could also hold the potential to be new therapeutic targets or drug delivery systems. The present overview aims to highlight some aspects of this new means of cellular communication: "microvesicular communication".

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Available from: Eva Pállinger, Dec 17, 2013
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    • "Particularly, an increase of circulating NVs originating from blood cells was demonstrated as marker for atherosclerosis exacerbation (Cocucci et al., 2009). Furthermore, NVs used as biomarker for neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, rheumatic diseases, cancer and other diseases (Pap et al., 2009; Cocucci et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanovesicles (NVs) represent a novel transporter for cells signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological process. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs). Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.
    Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 07/2015; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.jsps.2015.06.010 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    • "They have been identified in human, rodent, and fetal calf sera [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]. They are released both by the cells of haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic origin [28] [29], quiescent and activated [30], and non-transformed and tumor cells [31]. Because of their involvement in the intercellular signaling, the examination of their protein components in the healthy and diseased individuals may provide valuable markers for determining the site, type, and an extent of injury in various pathological conditions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles have created great interest as possible source of biomarkers for different biological processes and diseases. Although the biological function of these vesicles is not fully understood, it is clear that they participate in the removal of unnecessary cellular material and act as carriers of various macromolecules and signals between the cells. In this report, we analyzed the proteome of extracellular vesicles secreted by primary hepatocytes. We used one- and two-dimensional liquid chromatography combined with data-independent mass spectrometry. Employing label-free quantitative proteomics, we detected significant changes in vesicle protein expression levels in this in vitro model after exposure to well-known liver toxins (galactosamine and Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide). The results allowed us to identify candidate markers for liver injury. We validated a number of these markers in vivo, providing the basis for the development of novel methods to evaluate drug toxicity. This report strongly supports the application of proteomics in the study of extracellular vesicles released by well-controlled in vitro cellular systems. Analysis of such systems should help to identify specific markers for various biological processes and pathological conditions. Identification of low invasive candidate marker for hepatotoxicity. Support to apply proteomics in the study of extracellular vesicles released by well-controlled in vitro cellular systems to identify low invasive markers for diseases.
    Journal of proteomics 04/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2014.04.008 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "The intracellular Ca 2þ concentration alters the asymmetric phospholipid distribution of the plasma membrane by activating scramblase and floppase, resulting in the exposure of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane (Pap et al., 2009). Moreover, the level of Ca 2þ contributes to the degradation of the cytoskeleton via the activation of Ca 2þ -dependent proteases, such as calpain and gelsolin, followed by ectosome release (Pap et al., 2009). Recently, it was reported that RhoA signaling leads to the downstream activation of a Rho-associated coiled-coilcontaining protein kinase that stimulates the generation of ectosomes to regulate the actin cytoskeleton via cofilin (Li et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Almost all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic cells shed extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner. These nanosized membrane vesicles are spherical, bilayered proteolipids that harbor specific subsets of proteins, DNAs, RNAs, and lipids. Recent research has facilitated conceptual advancements in this emerging field that indicate that extracellular vesicles act as intercellular communicasomes by transferring signals to their target cell via surface ligands and delivering receptors and functional molecules. Recent progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles derived from diverse cell types and body fluids has resulted in the identification of several thousand vesicular proteins that provide us with essential clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicle cargo sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, cell-type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins help us to understand the pathophysiological functions of extracellular vesicles and contribute to the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic target proteins. This review focuses on the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes and ectosomes), EVpedia (a free web-based integrated database of high-throughput data for systematic analyses of extracellular vesicles;, and the intravesicular protein-protein interaction network analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies to construct a comprehensive proteome database for extracellular vesicles that will help us to not only decode the biogenesis and cargo-sorting mechanisms during vesicle formation but also elucidate the pathophysiological roles of these complex extracellular organelles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.
    Mass Spectrometry Reviews 01/2014; 34(4). DOI:10.1002/mas.21420 · 7.71 Impact Factor
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