Article

Highlights of a new type of intercellular communication: microvesicle-based information transfer.

Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
Agents and Actions (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/2009; 58(1):1-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00011-008-8210-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-covered cell fragments released by most cell types during apoptosis or activation. They are increasingly considered to play a pivotal role in information transfer between cells. Their presence and role have been proven in several physiological and pathological processes, such as immune modulation in inflammation and pregnancy, or blood coagulation and cancer. MVs represent a newly recognized system of intercellular communications. They not only may serve as prognostic markers in different diseases, but could also hold the potential to be new therapeutic targets or drug delivery systems. The present overview aims to highlight some aspects of this new means of cellular communication: "microvesicular communication".

0 Followers
 · 
121 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since their first description, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the topic of avid study in a variety of physiologic contexts and are now thought to play an important role in cancer. The state of knowledge on biogenesis, molecular content and horizontal communication of diverse types of cancer EVs has expanded considerably in recent years. As a consequence, a plethora of information about EV composition and molecular pathways involved in the regulation of important biological processes has emerged, along with the notion that cancer cells rely on these particles to invade tissues and propagate oncogenic signals at distance. In vivo studies, designed to achieve a deeper understanding of the extent to which EV biology can be applied to clinically relevant settings, are increasing. This review will summarize recent studies on EVs functionally implicated in cancer, with a focus on a novel EV population referred to as large oncosomes, which originate from highly migratory, amoeboid tumor cells. Here we provide an overview about the biogenesis and composition of exosomes, microvesicles and large oncosomes, along with their cancer-specific and more general functions. We also discuss current challenges and emerging technologies that might improve EV detection in various systems. Further studies on the functional role of EVs in specific steps of cancer formation and progression will expand our understanding of the diversity of paracrine signaling mechanisms in malignant growth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.02.010 · 5.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous wound healing, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in tissue repair.MethodshiPSC-MSC-Exos were injected subcutaneously around wound sites in a rat model and the efficacy of hiPSC-MSC-Exos was assessed by measuring wound closure areas, by histological and immunofluorescence examinations. We also evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on both the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by cell-counting and scratch assays, respectively. The effects of exosomes on fibroblast collagen and elastin secretion were studied in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative reverse-transcriptase¿polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In vitro capillary network formation was determined in tube-formation assays.ResultsTransplanting hiPSC-MSC-Exos to wound sites resulted in accelerated re-epithelialization, reduced scar widths, and the promotion of collagen maturity. Moreover, hiPSC-MSC-Exos not only promoted the generation of newly formed vessels, but also accelerated their maturation in wound sites. We found that hiPSC-MSC-Exos stimulated the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Similarly, Type I, III collagen and elastin secretion and mRNA expression by fibroblasts and tube formation by HUVECs were also increased with increasing hiPSC-MSC-Exos concentrations.Conclusions Our findings suggest that hiPSC-MSC-Exos can facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. These data provide the first evidence for the potential of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in treating cutaneous wounds.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracellular double-stranded DNA participates in various processes in an organism. Here we report the suppressive effects of fragmented human double-stranded DNA along or in combination with cyclophosphamide on solid and ascites grafts of mouse Krebs-2 tumor cells and DNA preparation on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. Apoptosis and necrosis were assayed by electrophoretic analysis (DNA nucleosomal fragmentation) and by measurements of LDH levels in ascitic fluid, respectively. DNA internalization into MCF-7 was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Direct cytotoxic activity of double-stranded DNA (along or in combination with cyclophosphamide) on a solid transplant was demonstrated. This resulted in delayed solid tumor proliferation and partial tumor lysis due to necrosis of the tumor and adjacent tissues. In the case of ascites form of tumor, extensive apoptosis and secondary necrosis were observed. Similarly, MCF-7 cells showed induction of massive apoptosis (up to 45%) as a result of treatments with double-stranded DNA preparation. Double-stranded DNA (along or in combination with cyclophosphamide) induces massive apoptosis of Krebs-2 ascite cells and MCF-7 cell line (DNA only). In treated mice it reduces the integrity of gut wall cells and contributes to the development of systemic inflammatory reaction.
    Cancer Cell International 01/2015; 15:32. DOI:10.1186/s12935-015-0180-6 · 1.99 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
143 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014