Highlights of a new type of intercellular communication: microvesicle-based information transfer.

Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
Agents and Actions (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/2009; 58(1):1-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00011-008-8210-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-covered cell fragments released by most cell types during apoptosis or activation. They are increasingly considered to play a pivotal role in information transfer between cells. Their presence and role have been proven in several physiological and pathological processes, such as immune modulation in inflammation and pregnancy, or blood coagulation and cancer. MVs represent a newly recognized system of intercellular communications. They not only may serve as prognostic markers in different diseases, but could also hold the potential to be new therapeutic targets or drug delivery systems. The present overview aims to highlight some aspects of this new means of cellular communication: "microvesicular communication".

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    ABSTRACT: Since their first description, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the topic of avid study in a variety of physiologic contexts and are now thought to play an important role in cancer. The state of knowledge on biogenesis, molecular content and horizontal communication of diverse types of cancer EVs has expanded considerably in recent years. As a consequence, a plethora of information about EV composition and molecular pathways involved in the regulation of important biological processes has emerged, along with the notion that cancer cells rely on these particles to invade tissues and propagate oncogenic signals at distance. In vivo studies, designed to achieve a deeper understanding of the extent to which EV biology can be applied to clinically relevant settings, are increasing. This review will summarize recent studies on EVs functionally implicated in cancer, with a focus on a novel EV population referred to as large oncosomes, which originate from highly migratory, amoeboid tumor cells. Here we provide an overview about the biogenesis and composition of exosomes, microvesicles and large oncosomes, along with their cancer-specific and more general functions. We also discuss current challenges and emerging technologies that might improve EV detection in various systems. Further studies on the functional role of EVs in specific steps of cancer formation and progression will expand our understanding of the diversity of paracrine signaling mechanisms in malignant growth. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous wound healing, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in tissue repair.MethodshiPSC-MSC-Exos were injected subcutaneously around wound sites in a rat model and the efficacy of hiPSC-MSC-Exos was assessed by measuring wound closure areas, by histological and immunofluorescence examinations. We also evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on both the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by cell-counting and scratch assays, respectively. The effects of exosomes on fibroblast collagen and elastin secretion were studied in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative reverse-transcriptase¿polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In vitro capillary network formation was determined in tube-formation assays.ResultsTransplanting hiPSC-MSC-Exos to wound sites resulted in accelerated re-epithelialization, reduced scar widths, and the promotion of collagen maturity. Moreover, hiPSC-MSC-Exos not only promoted the generation of newly formed vessels, but also accelerated their maturation in wound sites. We found that hiPSC-MSC-Exos stimulated the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Similarly, Type I, III collagen and elastin secretion and mRNA expression by fibroblasts and tube formation by HUVECs were also increased with increasing hiPSC-MSC-Exos concentrations.Conclusions Our findings suggest that hiPSC-MSC-Exos can facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. These data provide the first evidence for the potential of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in treating cutaneous wounds.
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