DHA and cholesterol containing diets influence Alzheimer-like pathology, cognition and cerebral vasculature in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.
ABSTRACT Cholesterol and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) may affect degenerative processes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) by influencing Abeta metabolism indirectly via the vasculature. We investigated whether DHA-enriched diets or cholesterol-containing Typical Western Diets (TWD) alter behavior and cognition, cerebral hemodynamics (relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV)) and Abeta deposition in 8- and 15-month-old APP(swe)/PS1(dE9) mice. In addition we investigated whether changes in rCBV precede changes in Abeta deposition or vice versa. Mice were fed regular rodent chow, a TWD-, or a DHA-containing diet. Behavior, learning and memory were investigated, and rCBV was measured using contrast-enhanced MRI. The Abeta load was visualized immunohistochemically. We demonstrate that DHA altered rCBV in 8-month-old APP/PS1 and wild type mice[AU1]. In 15-month-old APP/PS1 mice DHA supplementation improved spatial memory, decreased Abeta deposition and slightly increased rCBV, indicating that a DHA-enriched diet can diminish AD-like pathology. In contrast, TWD diets decreased rCBV in 15-month-old mice. The present data indicate that long-term dietary interventions change AD-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Additionally, effects of the tested diets on vascular parameters were observed before effects on Abeta load were noted. These data underline the importance of vascular factors in the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD pathology.
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ABSTRACT: The impact of inflammation suppressor pathways on Alzheimer's disease (AD) evolution remains poorly understood. Human genetic evidence suggests involvement of the cardinal anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL10). We crossed the APP/PS1 mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis with a mouse deficient in Il10 (APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-)). Quantitative in silico 3D modeling revealed activated Aβ phagocytic microglia in APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) mice that restricted cerebral amyloidosis. Genome-wide RNA sequencing of APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) brains showed selective modulation of innate immune genes that drive neuroinflammation. Il10 deficiency preserved synaptic integrity and mitigated cognitive disturbance in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro knockdown of microglial Il10-Stat3 signaling endorsed Aβ phagocytosis, while exogenous IL-10 had the converse effect. Il10 deficiency also partially overcame inhibition of microglial Aβ uptake by human Apolipoprotein E. Finally, the IL-10 signaling pathway was abnormally elevated in AD patient brains. Our results suggest that "rebalancing" innate immunity by blocking the IL-10 anti-inflammatory response may be therapeutically relevant for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Neuron 01/2015; 85(3). DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.068 · 15.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A brief overview of the evidence for omega-3 fatty acids and, in particular, of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), involvement in cognition and in dementia is given. Two studies are presented in this regard in which the key intervention is a DHA supplement. The fist, the MIDAS Study demonstrated that DHA can be of benefit for episodic memory in healthy adults with a mild memory complaint. The second, the ADCS AD trial found no benefit of DHA in the primary outcomes but found an intriguing benefit for cognitive score in ApoE4 negative allele patients. This leads to a consideration of the mechanisms of action and role of ApoE and its modulation by DHA. Given the fundamental role of ApoE in cellular lipid transport and metabolism in the brain and periphery, it is no surprise that ApoE affects n-3 PUFA brain function as well. It remains to be seen to what extent ApoE4 deleterious effect in AD is associated with n-3 PUFA-related cellular mechanisms in the brain and, more specifically, whether ApoE4 directly impairs the transport of DHA into the brain, as has been suggested.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 10/2014; 92. DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2014.10.003 · 1.98 Impact Factor