Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance.

Department of Human Kinetics, St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Canada.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 1.8). 02/2009; 23(1):116-20. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818efbcc
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Muscle and strength loss will occur during periods of physical inactivity and immobilization. Creatine supplementation may have a favorable effect on muscle mass and strength independently of exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on upper limb muscle mass and muscle performance after immobilization. Before the study, creatine-naïve men (n = 7; 18-25 years) were assessed for lean tissue mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-repetition maximum [1RM] isometric single arm elbow flexion/extension), and muscle endurance (maximum number of single-arm isokinetic elbow flexion/extension repetitions at 60% 1RM). After baseline measures, subjects had their dominant or nondominant (random assignment) upper limb immobilized (long arm plaster cast) at 90 degrees elbow flexion. Using a single-blind crossover design, subjects received placebo (maltodextrin; 4 x 5 gxd-1) during days 1-7 and creatine (4 x 5 gxd-1) during days 15-21. The cast was removed during days 8-14 and 22-29. The dependent measures of lean tissue mass, strength, and endurance were assessed at baseline, postcast, and after the study. During immobilization, compared with isocaloric placebo, creatine supplementation better maintained lean tissue mass (Cr +0.9% vs. PLA -3.7%, p < 0.05), elbow flexor strength (Cr -4.1% vs. PLA -21.5%, p < 0.05), and endurance (Cr -9.6% vs. PLA -43%, p < 0.05), and elbow extensor strength (Cr -3.8% vs. PLA -18%, p < 0.05) and endurance (Cr -6.5% vs. PLA -35%, p < 0.05). These results indicate that short-term creatine supplementation attenuates the loss in muscle mass and strength during upper-arm immobilization in young men.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periods of immobilisation are often associated with pathologies and/or ageing. These periods of muscle disuse induce muscle atrophy which could worsen the pathology or elderly frailty. If muscle mass loss has positive effects in the short term, a sustained/uncontrolled muscle mass loss is deleterious for health. Muscle mass recovery following immobilisation-induced atrophy could be critical, particularly when it is uncompleted as observed during ageing. Exercise, the best way to recover muscle mass, is not always applicable. So, other approaches such as nutritional strategies are needed to limit muscle wasting and to improve muscle mass recovery in such situations. The present review discusses mechanisms involved in muscle atrophy following disuse and during recovery and emphasises the effect of age in these mechanisms. In addition, the efficiency of nutritional strategies proposed to limit muscle mass loss during disuse and to improve protein gain during recovery (leucine supplementation, whey proteins, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, energy intake) is also discussed.
    Nutrition Research Reviews 08/2013; · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Situations such as recovery from injury or illness require otherwise healthy humans to undergo periods of disuse, which lead to considerable losses of skeletal muscle mass and, subsequently, numerous negative health consequences. It has been established that prolonged disuse (>10 days) leads to a decline in basal and postprandial rates of muscle protein synthesis, without an apparent change in muscle protein breakdown. It also seems, however, that an early and transient (1-5 days) increase in basal muscle protein breakdown may also contribute to disuse atrophy. A period of disuse reduces energy requirements and appetite. Consequently, food intake generally declines, resulting in an inadequate dietary protein consumption to allow proper muscle mass maintenance. Evidence suggests that maintaining protein intake during a period of disuse attenuates disuse atrophy. Furthermore, supplementation with dietary protein and/or essential amino acids can be applied to further aid in muscle mass preservation during disuse. Such strategies are of particular relevance to the older patient at risk of developing sarcopenia. More work is required to elucidate the impact of disuse on basal and postprandial rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. Such information will provide novel targets for nutritional interventions to further attenuate muscle disuse atrophy and, as such, support healthy aging.
    Nutrition Reviews 04/2013; 71(4):195-208. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The recovery from many injuries sustained in athletic training or competition often requires an extensive period of limb immobilisation (muscle disuse). Such periods induce skeletal muscle loss and consequent declines in metabolic health and functional capacity, particularly during the early stages (1-2 weeks) of muscle disuse. The extent of muscle loss during injury strongly influences the level and duration of rehabilitation required. Currently, however, efforts to intervene and attenuate muscle loss during the initial two weeks of injury are minimal. Mechanistically, muscle disuse atrophy is primarily attributed to a decline in basal muscle protein synthesis rate and the development of anabolic resistance to food intake. Dietary protein consumption is of critical importance for stimulating muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the day. Given that the injured athlete greatly reduces physical activity levels, maintaining muscle mass whilst simultaneously avoiding gains in fat mass can become challenging. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that maintaining or increasing daily protein intake by focusing upon the amount, type and timing of dietary protein ingestion throughout the day can restrict the loss of muscle mass and strength during recovery from injury. Moreover, neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be applied to evoke involuntary muscle contractions and support muscle mass maintenance in the injured athlete. Although more applied work is required to translate laboratory findings directly to the injured athlete, current recommendations for practitioners aiming to limit the loss of muscle mass and/or strength following injury in their athletes are outlined herein.
    European Journal of Sport Science 07/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor