Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance.
ABSTRACT Muscle and strength loss will occur during periods of physical inactivity and immobilization. Creatine supplementation may have a favorable effect on muscle mass and strength independently of exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on upper limb muscle mass and muscle performance after immobilization. Before the study, creatine-naïve men (n = 7; 18-25 years) were assessed for lean tissue mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-repetition maximum [1RM] isometric single arm elbow flexion/extension), and muscle endurance (maximum number of single-arm isokinetic elbow flexion/extension repetitions at 60% 1RM). After baseline measures, subjects had their dominant or nondominant (random assignment) upper limb immobilized (long arm plaster cast) at 90 degrees elbow flexion. Using a single-blind crossover design, subjects received placebo (maltodextrin; 4 x 5 gxd-1) during days 1-7 and creatine (4 x 5 gxd-1) during days 15-21. The cast was removed during days 8-14 and 22-29. The dependent measures of lean tissue mass, strength, and endurance were assessed at baseline, postcast, and after the study. During immobilization, compared with isocaloric placebo, creatine supplementation better maintained lean tissue mass (Cr +0.9% vs. PLA -3.7%, p < 0.05), elbow flexor strength (Cr -4.1% vs. PLA -21.5%, p < 0.05), and endurance (Cr -9.6% vs. PLA -43%, p < 0.05), and elbow extensor strength (Cr -3.8% vs. PLA -18%, p < 0.05) and endurance (Cr -6.5% vs. PLA -35%, p < 0.05). These results indicate that short-term creatine supplementation attenuates the loss in muscle mass and strength during upper-arm immobilization in young men.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of creatine supplement on the size of the extra- and intracellular compartments and on the increase of isokinetic force during a strength training-program. Twenty-five healthy male subjects (age 22.0+/-2.9 years) participated in this experiment. Seven subjects formed the control-group. They did not complete any training and did not have any dietary supplement. The eighteen other subjects were randomly divided into a creatine- (n = 8) and a placebo-group (n = 10). They were submitted to a controlled strength-training program for 42 days followed by a detraining period of 21 days. Creatine and placebo were given over a period of 9 weeks. The size of the body water compartments was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy and the isokinetic force was determined during a single squat by means of an isokinetic dynamometer. These measurements were completed beforehand, at the end of the training period, and after the determining period. Both placebo- and creatine-group increased the isokinetic force by about 6% after the training period, showing that creatine ingestion does not induce a higher increase of the force measured during a single movement. No change in body mass was observed in the control- and placebo-groups during the entire experiment period while the body mass of the creatine-group was increased by 2 kg (P < 0.001). This change can be attributed partially to an increase (P = 0.039) in the body water content (+1.11), and more specifically, to an increase (P < 0.001) in the volume of the inter-cellular compartment (+0.61). Nevertheless, the relative volumes of the body water compartments remained constant and therefore the gain in body mass cannot be attributed to water retention, but probably to dry matter growth accompanied with a normal water volume.European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 07/1999; 80(2):165-8.
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ABSTRACT: Nutritional status influences muscle growth and athletic performance, but little is known about the effect of nutritional supplements, such as creatine, on satellite cell mitotic activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle growth, compensatory hypertrophy, and satellite cell mitotic activity. Compensatory hypertrophy was induced in the rat plantaris muscle by removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. Immediately following surgery, a group of six rats was provided with elevated levels of creatine monohydrate in their diet. Another group of six rats was maintained as a non-supplemented control group. Twelve days following surgery, all rats were implanted with mini-osmotic pumps containing the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotically active satellite cells. Four weeks after the initial surgery the rats were killed, plantaris muscles were removed and weighed. Subsequently, BrdU-labeled and non-BrdU-labeled nuclei were identified on enzymatically isolated myofiber segments. Muscle mass and myofiber diameters were larger (P < 0.05) in the muscles that underwent compensatory hypertrophy compared to the control muscles, but there were no differences between muscles from creatine-supplemented and non-creatine-supplemented rats. Similarly, compensatory hypertrophy resulted in an increased (P < 0.05) number of BrdU-labeled myofiber nuclei, but creatine supplementation in combination with compensatory hypertrophy resulted in a higher (P < 0.05) number of BrdU-labeled myofiber nuclei compared to compensatory hypertrophy without creatine supplementation. Thus, creatine supplementation in combination with an increased functional load results in increased satellite cell mitotic activity.International Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2000; 21(1):13-6. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of creatine feeding (5 g kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) upon the deleterious adaptations in skeletal muscle induced by immobilization. Male Wistar rats were submitted to hind limb immobilization together with three dietary manipulations: control, supplemented with creatine for 7 days (along with immobilization) and supplemented with creatine for 14 days (7 days before immobilization and together with immobilization). Muscle weight (wet/dry) was determined in the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS). The analysis of lean mass was performed by DEXA and myosin heavy chain (MHC) distribution by SDS-PAGE. After 14 days of creatine loading, immobilized SOL and GAS total creatine content were increased by 25% and 18%, respectively. Regardless of dietary manipulation, the immobilization protocol induced a decrease in the weight of SOL and GAS (P < 0.001). However, creatine feeding for 14 days minimized mass loss in the SOL and GAS (P < 0.05). Our findings also indicate that creatine supplementation maximizes the expected slow-to-fast MHC shift driven by immobilization (P < 0.05). Previous creatine supplementation attenuates muscle wasting induced by immobilization. This effect is associated with the increment of intramuscular creatine content.Clinical Nutrition 11/2004; 23(5):1176-83. · 3.30 Impact Factor