In-line and real-time process monitoring of a freeze drying process using Raman and NIR spectroscopy as complementary process analytical technology (PAT) tools.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the complementary properties of Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as PAT tools for the fast, noninvasive, nondestructive and in-line process monitoring of a freeze drying process. Therefore, Raman and NIR probes were built in the freeze dryer chamber, allowing simultaneous process monitoring. A 5% (w/v) mannitol solution was used as model for freeze drying. Raman and NIR spectra were continuously collected during freeze drying (one Raman and NIR spectrum/min) and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Raman spectroscopy was able to supply information about (i) the mannitol solid state throughout the entire process, (ii) the endpoint of freezing (endpoint of mannitol crystallization), and (iii) several physical and chemical phenomena occurring during the process (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization). NIR spectroscopy proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor the critical aspects during drying: (i) endpoint of ice sublimation and (ii) monitoring the release of hydrate water during storage. Furthermore, via NIR spectroscopy some Raman observations were confirmed: start of ice nucleation, end of mannitol crystallization and solid state characteristics of the end product. When Raman and NIR monitoring were performed on the same vial, the Raman signal was saturated during the freezing step caused by reflected NIR light reaching the Raman detector. Therefore, NIR and Raman measurements were done on a different vial. Also the importance of the position of the probes (Raman probe above the vial and NIR probe at the bottom of the sidewall of the vial) in order to obtain all required critical information is outlined. Combining Raman and NIR spectroscopy for the simultaneous monitoring of freeze drying allows monitoring almost all critical freeze drying process aspects. Both techniques do not only complement each other, they also provided mutual confirmation of specific conclusions.
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ABSTRACT: Dehydration is a commonly used method to stabilise protein formulations. Upon dehydration, there is a significant risk the composition of the formulation will change especially if the protein formulation contains volatile compounds. Phenol is often used as excipient in insulin formulations, stabilising the insulin hexamer by changing the secondary structure. We have previously shown that it is possible to maintain this structural change after drying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual phenol content in spray-dried and freeze-dried insulin formulations by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy using multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) projections were used to analyse spectral data. After drying, there was a difference between the two drying methods in the phenol/insulin ratio and the water content of the dried samples. The spray-dried samples contained more water and less phenol compared with the freeze-dried samples. For the FTIR spectra, the best model used one PLS component to describe the phenol/insulin ratio in the powders, and was based on the second derivative pre-treated spectra in the 850-650 cm(-1) region. The best PLS model based on the NIR spectra utilised three PLS components to describe the phenol/insulin ratio and was based on the standard normal variate transformed spectra in the 6,200-5,800 cm(-1) region. The root mean square error of cross validation was 0.69% and 0.60% (w/w) for the models based on the FTIR and NIR spectra, respectively. In general, both methods were suitable for phenol quantification in dried phenol/insulin samples.AAPS PharmSciTech 05/2011; 12(2):627-36. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromatography using polyamide column is one of the most critical purification operations that affect the safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products. To ensure successful operation and reduce time and solvent consumption, UV spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis as an online analytical tool was developed for monitoring the polyamide column chromatography of the TCM Danshen. The process trajectories were established by principal component analysis of the UV spectra and used to determine the endpoint of the washing stage and investigate the impacts of the process conditions. The online analysis method developed determined the concentration of salvianolic acid B (an important compound in Danshen) in the effluent rapidly and precisely with a coefficient of determination of 0.9963 and helped to collect salvianolic acid B quantitatively for determining the endpoint of elution. The methodology proposed is an effective approach applicable in guiding successful operations in the chromatographic separation.Journal of Separation Science 01/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While entering a new century, lyophilization in the pharmaceutical field has been subjected to ongoing development and steady expansion. This review aims to highlight recent advances but also to discuss further challenges in lyophilization. At first, the expanded range of pharmaceutical applications based on lyophilization is summarized. Moreover, novel formulation aspects and novel container systems are discussed and the importance of the freezing step is outlined. Furthermore, the dogma of "never lyophilize above the glass transition temperature" is argued and recent insights into novel stabilization concepts are provided. Process analytical technology (PAT) and quality by design (QbD) are now leading issues and the design of the lyophilization equipment also might have to be reconsidered in the future.European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 06/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor