Identification of adjacent binding sites for the YY1 and E4BP4 transcription factors in the ovine PrP (Prion) gene promoter.
ABSTRACT The PrP gene encodes the cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrP(c)) which has been shown to be crucial to the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). PrP knock-out mice, which do not express endogenous PrP(c), exhibit resistance to TSE disease. The regulation of PrP gene expression represents, therefore, a crucial factor in the development of TSEs. Two sequence motifs in the PrP promoter (positions -287 to -263 from transcriptional start) were previously reported as being highly conserved, and it was suggested that they represent binding sites for as yet unidentified transcription factors. To test this hypothesis, binding of nuclear proteins was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays using ovine or murine cells and tissues with radiolabeled DNA probes containing the conserved motif sequences. Specific binding was observed to both motifs, and polymorphic variants of these motifs exhibited differential binding. Two proteins bound to these motifs were identified as the Yin Yang 1 (YY1) (motif 1) and E4BP4 (motif 2) transcription factors. Functional promoter analysis of four different promoter variants revealed that motif 1 (YY1) was associated with inhibitory activity in the context of the PrP promoter, whereas motif 2 (E4BP4) was linked to a slight enhancing activity. This represents the first demonstration of binding of nuclear factors to two highly conserved DNA sequence motifs within mammalian PrP promoters. The action of these factors on the PrP promoter is haplotype-specific, leading us to propose that the prion protein expression pattern and, with it, the distribution of TSE infectivity may be associated with PrP promoter genotype.
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ABSTRACT: Marfan syndrome has great genotypic and phenotypic variability. Marfan syndrome patients face an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. A 5-ft, 4-in-tall 40-year-old gravida 4 para 2 with a family history of Marfan syndrome presented 4 days after spontaneous vaginal delivery with sudden onset of shortness of breath, air hunger, syncope, and collapse, with resultant asystole. Resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful, and postmortem findings showed dissection and cystic medial necrosis of the aorta. Regardless of physical appearance, any patient reporting a family history of Marfan syndrome should undergo and have documented a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation of the skeletal, ocular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and skin/integumentary systems and dura, in addition to genetic counseling.Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2008; 112(2 Pt 2):472-5. · 4.73 Impact Factor