Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanism.
ABSTRACT Tetramethyl pyrazine has been considered an effective agent in treating neurons ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanism of its therapeutic effect remains unclear. This study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine on temporary focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats and 20 mg/kg of tetramethyl pyrazine was intraperitoneally injected at different time points. At 72 h after reperfusion, all animals' neurologic deficit scores were evaluated. Cerebrums were removed and cerebral infarction volume was measured. The expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase mRNA was determined at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion.
Cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased in the group with tetramethyl pyrazine treatment. The expression of thioredoxin-1/thioredoxin-2 and thioredoxin reductase-1/thioredoxin reductase-2 was significantly decreased in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury, while it was increased by tetramethyl pyrazine administration.
Treatment with tetramethyl pyrazine, within 4 h after reperfusion, protects the brain from ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. The neuroprotective mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine treatment is, in part, mediated through the upregulation of thioredoxin transcription.
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ABSTRACT: CXC195 showed strongest protective effects among the ligustrazine derivatives in cells and prevented apoptosis induced by H2O2 injury. We recently demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by its antioxidant activity. However, whether the anti-apoptotic action of CXC195 is involved in cerebral I/R injury is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CXC195 in apoptotic processes induced by cerebral I/R and the possible signaling pathways. Male Wistar rats were submitted to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion. CXC195 was injected intraperitoneally at 2 h and 12 h after the onset of ischemia. The number of apoptotic cells was measured by TUNEL assay, apoptosis-related protein cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax and the phosphorylation levels of Akt and GSK3β in ischemic penumbra were assayed by western blot. The results showed that administration of CXC195 at the doses of 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg significantly inhibited the apoptosis by decreasing the number of apoptotic cells, decreasing the level of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, and increasing the level of Bcl-2 in rats subjected to I/R injury. Simultaneously, CXC195 treatment markedly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. Blockade of PI3K activity by wortmannin, dramatically abolished its anti-apoptotic effect and lowered both Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation levels. Our study firstly demonstrated that CXC195 protected against cerebral I/R injury by reducing apoptosis in vivo and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway involved in the anti-apoptotic effect.Neurochemistry International 01/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Testicular torsion is a urological emergency that leads to serious testicular damage and male infertility. We performed this study to identify specific proteins that are differentially expressed in response to testicular torsion and detorsion-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Adult male rats were divided into two groups: a sham-operated group and a testicular I-R group. Testicular torsion was induced by rotating the left testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 1 hr, and then, detorsion was performed for 24 hr. After this testicular tissues were collected, protein analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses. Testicular I-R injury resulted in serious histopathologic damage to the germinal cells in the seminiferous tubules and increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in testicular tissue. Specific protein spots with a greater than 2.5-fold change in intensity between the sham-operated and testicular I-R groups were identified by mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, levels of peroxiredoxin 6, thioredoxin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase isozyme L5 and zinc finger AN1-type domain 3 were decreased in the testicular I-R group compared to the sham-operated group. Moreover, Western blot analysis clearly showed the decrease of these proteins in the testicular I-R group. These proteins have spermatogenesis and anti-oxidative functions. These findings suggest that testicular I-R results in cell death due to altered expression of several proteins with spermatogenesis and anti-oxidation functions.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 11/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI) is a life-threatening condition requiring prompt medical intervention. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biologically active alkaloid isolated from Ligusticum wallichii. Previously, it was shown that TMP causes vasodilatation and inhibition of platelet aggregation as well as exhibits significant antioxidant effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of TMP in the prevention of IIRI. Wistar rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into eight experimental groups and subjected to a 1 h occlusion of cranial mesenteric artery followed by 0, 1, 12, and 24 h period of reperfusion. Thirty minutes before the IIRI animals received either TMP (30 mg/kg, i.v.) or identical volume of saline. In addition, a control group of 10 animals was not exposed to IIRI. Intestine morphology was evaluated by using histopathological injury index examination (HII), goblet and Paneth cells quantification as well as by applying immunofluorescent methods such as InSitu TUNEL and caspase-3 positivity assessment. Here we showed that preconditioning with TMP prior IIRI decreases the grade of injury. Significant reduction of HII was detected in TMP pretreated groups after 0, 1, and 12 h of reperfusion where injury reduction up to 75% was found. Lower histopathological damage in preconditioned groups was accompanied with increased number of secretory epithelial cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells. These results demonstrate the protective effect of TMP on the small intestine mucosa, suggesting administration of TMP as a molecule for pharmacological intervention against IIRI.The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 01/2013; 41(4):817-29. · 2.63 Impact Factor