Protective effect of tetraethyl pyrazine against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: therapeutic time window and its mechanism.
ABSTRACT Tetramethyl pyrazine has been considered an effective agent in treating neurons ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanism of its therapeutic effect remains unclear. This study was to explore the therapeutic time window and mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine on temporary focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Middle cerebral artery occlusion was conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats and 20 mg/kg of tetramethyl pyrazine was intraperitoneally injected at different time points. At 72 h after reperfusion, all animals' neurologic deficit scores were evaluated. Cerebrums were removed and cerebral infarction volume was measured. The expression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase mRNA was determined at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion.
Cerebral infarction volume and neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased in the group with tetramethyl pyrazine treatment. The expression of thioredoxin-1/thioredoxin-2 and thioredoxin reductase-1/thioredoxin reductase-2 was significantly decreased in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury, while it was increased by tetramethyl pyrazine administration.
Treatment with tetramethyl pyrazine, within 4 h after reperfusion, protects the brain from ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. The neuroprotective mechanism of tetramethyl pyrazine treatment is, in part, mediated through the upregulation of thioredoxin transcription.
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ABSTRACT: In traditional Chinese medicine, Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong) and its active ingredient tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and to relieve various neurological symptoms such as ischemic deficits. However, scientific evidence related to their effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. In the current study, we elicited the neuroprotective mechanisms of TMP after focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) by common carotid arteries and middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. TMP was administrated 60 min before occlusion via intraperitoneal injection. TMP concentration-dependently exhibited significant neuroprotective effect against ischemic deficits by reduction of behavioral disturbance. Neuronal loss and brain infarction in the ischemic side of rats were markedly lowered by treatment with TMP. Cerebral I/R-induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release were reduced by TMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the up-regulation of Bax and Bad by cerebral I/R insult. Among them, only the alteration in Bcl-xL expression was reversed by TMP treatment. Moreover, the activation of microglia and/or recruitment of inflammatory cells within the ischemic side and the consequent production of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were suppressed by TMP pre-treatment. Our findings suggest that TMP might provide neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury, in part, through suppression of inflammatory reaction, reduction of neuronal apoptosis, and prevention of neuronal loss.Neurochemistry International 03/2006; 48(3):166-76. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin (TRX) is a small, multifunctional protein with a redox-active site and multiple biological functions that include reducing activity for reactive oxygen intermediates. We assayed TRX and TRX mRNA by immunohistochemical methods and hybridization experiments in the rat brain after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. During ischemia, the immunoreactivity for TRX decreased; it disappeared after MCA occlusion in the ischemic regions. It rapidly decreased and nearly disappeared at 4 and 16 hours after MCA occlusion in the lateral striatum and frontoparietal cortex, respectively. On the other hand, in the perifocal ischemic region, the penumbra, TRX immunoreactivity began to increase 4 hours after MCA occlusion and continued to increase until 24 hours after occlusion. In hybridization experiments, TRX mRNA decreased and nearly disappeared 4 hours after MCA occlusion in the lateral striatum. In the frontoparietal cortex, it decreased until 24 hours after MCA occlusion. In the perifocal ischemic region, TRX mRNA began to increase 4 hours after MCA occlusion and continued to increase until 24 hours. Northern blot analysis showed that total TRX mRNA in the operated hemispheres was induced from 8 hours and increased until 24 hours after the surgical procedures. We previously reported that recombinant TRX promotes the in vitro survival of primary cultured neurons. We now suggest that TRX in the penumbra has neuroprotective functions and that decreased levels of TRX in the ischemic core modify neuronal damage during focal brain ischemia.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 03/1998; 18(2):206-14. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of hyperoxia-induced lung injury remain poorly defined. Thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) is a small ubiquitous protein that acts as an important radical scavenger. We investigated the effect of TRX-1 on apoptosis in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Mice were exposed to 98% O(2) to produce a model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Using transgenic mice overexpressing human TRX-1 (hTRX-1), we assessed lung structure (n=4 per group), immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (n=4 per group), TUNEL staining (n=5 per group), cytokine (n=5 per group) of IL-1beta and IL-6, and protein (n=6 per group) and m-RNA levels (n=4 per group) (or both) of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p21, and p53 in the lungs. After exposure to hyperoxia, hTRX-1 transgenic mice had significantly decreased alveolar damage. The apoptotic index was significantly lower in hTRX-1 transgenic mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after exposure to hyperoxia. Protein expression of cytochrome c in the lung was significantly lower in hTRX-1 transgenic mice than in WT mice after exposure to hyperoxia. Protein expression and m-RNA levels of Bcl-2 in the lung were significantly higher in hTRX-1 transgenic mice than in WT mice after exposure to hyperoxia. TRX-1 had no effect on the protein and m-RNA levels of Bax and p21. The protein and m-RNA levels of p53 was unaffected by hyperoxia in hTRX-1 transgenic mice. The cytokine level of IL-6 was significantly higher in hTRX-1 transgenic mice than in WT mice after exposure to hyperoxia. TRX-1 had no effect on cytokine level of IL-1beta. These findings suggest that overexpression of hTRX-1 protects against hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in cells of the alveolar walls. The up-regulating Bcl-2 protein is considered to be one of antiapoptotic effects of TRX-1 in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 02/2007; 20(6):650-9. · 2.54 Impact Factor