Glycomic Characterization of Prostate-Specific Antigen and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Prostate Cancer and Benign Disease Seminal Plasma Fluids

Department of Microbiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia 23507, USA.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 5). 02/2009; 8(2):620-30. DOI: 10.1021/pr8007545
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) are glycoproteins secreted by prostate epithelial cells, and have a long clinical history of use as serum biomarkers of prostate cancers. These two proteins are present at significantly higher concentrations in seminal plasma, making this proximal fluid of the prostate a good source for purifying enough protein for characterization of prostate disease associated changes in glycan structures. With the use of seminal fluid samples representative of normal control, benign prostatic disease and prostate cancers, PAP and PSA were enriched by thiophilic absorption chromatography. Released N-linked glycan constituents from both proteins were analyzed by a combination of normal phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF spectrometry. For PSA, 40 putative glycoforms were determined, and 21 glycoforms were determined for PAP. PAP glycans were further analyzed with a hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer to assign specific glycoform classes to each of the three N-linked sites. The glycans identified in these studies will allow for more defined targeting of prostate disease-specific changes for PAP, PSA and other secreted prostatic glycoproteins.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycans are chains of carbohydrates attached to proteins (glycoproteins and proteoglycans) or lipids (glycolipids). Glycosylation is a post-translational modification and glycans have a wide range of functions in the human body including involvement in oncological diseases. Change in a glycan structure can not only indicate the presence of a pathological process but, more importantly, in some cases also its stage. Thus, a glycan analysis has the potential to be an effective and reliable tool in cancer diagnostics. Lectins are proteins responsible for natural biorecognition of glycans; even carbohydrate moieties still attached to proteins or whole cells can be recognised by lectins, which makes them an ideal candidate for designing label-free biosensors for glycan analysis. This review seeks to summarise evidence that the glycoprofiling of biomarkers by lectin-based biosensors can be of significant help in detecting prostate cancer.
    Chemical Papers 01/2015; 69(1):90-111. DOI:10.1515/chempap-2015-0052 · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is annually the most common newly diagnosed cancer in men. The prostate functions as a major secretory gland for the production of glycoproteins critical to sperm activation and reproduction. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, is one of the most commonly assayed glycoproteins in blood, serving as a biomarker for early detection and progression of prostate cancer. The single site of N-glycosylation on PSA has been the target of multiple glycan characterization studies. In this review, the extensive number of studies that have characterized the changes in O-linked and N-linked glycosylations associated with prostate cancer development and progression will be summarized. This includes analysis of the glycosylation of PSA, and other prostate glycoproteins, in tissues, clinical biofluids, and cell line models. Other studies are summarized in the context of understanding the complexities of these glycan changes in order to address the many confounding questions associated with prostate cancer, as well as efforts to improve prostate cancer biomarker assays using targeted glycomic-based strategies. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer, but the second leading cause of cancer death, in the world, with more than 700,000 fatalities annually. The major etiology of liver cancer is infection with an hepatotropic virus such as hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection. While chronic viral infection remains the main cause of liver disease and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), rates of nonviral-associated HCC are occurring at an alarmingly increasing rate. Like many cancers, survival rates are closely associated with time of detection. If HCC is caught early, survival rates can be as high as 50%. Regrettably, most cases of HCC are caught late where survival rates can be as low as 2-7%. Thus, there has been great interest in discovering serum biomarkers that could be used to identify those with HCC. To this end, many groups have examined the N-linked glycans to identify changes that occur with HCC. As the liver secretes the vast majority of proteins into the serum, this has often been a starting point for study. In serum, alterations in core fucosylation, outer-arm fucosylation, increased sialylation, and glycan branching have been observed in patients with HCC. Similar findings have been found directly in HCC tissue suggesting that these glycan changes may play a role in tumor formation and development. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014