Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important effector of innate immunity. We have previously shown that SP-D accumulates at sites of acute bacterial infection and neutrophil infiltration, a setting associated with the release of reactive species such as peroxynitrite. Incubation of native SP-D or trimeric SP-D lectin domains (NCRDs) with peroxynitrite resulted in nitration and nondisulfide cross-linking. Modifications were blocked by peroxynitrite scavengers or pH inactivation of peroxynitrite, and mass spectroscopy confirmed nitration of conserved tyrosine residues within the C-terminal neck and lectin domains. Mutant NCRDs lacking one or more of the tyrosines allowed us to demonstrate preferential nitration of Tyr314 and the formation of Tyr228-dependent cross-links. Although there was no effect of peroxynitrite or tyrosine mutations on lectin activity, incubation of SP-D dodecamers or murine lavage with peroxynitrite decreased the SP-D-dependent aggregation of lipopolysaccharide-coated beads, supporting our hypothesis that defective aggregation results from abnormal cross-linking. We also observed nitration, cross-linking of SP-D, and a significant decrease in SP-D-dependent aggregating activity in the lavage of mice acutely exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Thus, modification of SP-D by reactive oxygen-nitrogen species could contribute to alterations in the structure and function of SP-D at sites of inflammation in vivo.
"Resultant increases in parenchymal stresses occur in areas of collapse and in ventilated lung through generation of higher peak airway pressures; this, in turn, may result in epithelial injury and further inflammation. Oxidative/nitrosative alterations of SP-A and SP-D may also produce direct activation of the innate immune system (Matalon et al., 2009). Inflammation mediated conversion of SP-D to its trimeric form reduces its anti-inflammatory function and initiates proinflammatory signaling in the alveolar macrophage through CD-91/calreticulin mediated NF-κB activation (Gardai et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6 J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 hours, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 hours. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3- or NO2-. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 hours, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation.
"Compared to above experiments using NaONOO, which has a half-life ≤ 1 s at pH 7.4, SIN-1 can provide prolonged exposure to lower concentrations of ONOO − . This better mimics the profile of production in activated microglial cells (Matalon et al. 2009). Similar to NaONOO treatment, incubation of recombinant SR with increasing concentrations of SIN-1 resulted in elevated SDS/βMEresistant SR dimer in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 5A and B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serine racemase (SR) is the only identified enzyme in mammals responsible for isomerization of L-serine to D-serine, a coagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the forebrain. Our previous data showed that an apparent SR dimer resistant to sodium dodecyl sulfate and β-mercaptoethanol was elevated in microglial cells after proinflammatory activation. Because the activation of microglia is typically associated with an oxidative burst, oxidative cross-linking between SR subunits was speculated. In this study, an siRNA technique was employed to confirm the identity of this SR dimer band. The oxidative species potentially responsible for the cross-linking was investigated with recombinant SR protein. The data indicate that nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical were the likely candidates, whereas superoxide and hydrogen peroxide per se failed to contribute. Furthermore, the mechanism of formation of SR dimer by peroxynitrite oxidation was studied by mass spectrometry. A disulfide bond between Cys₆ and Cys₁₁₃ was identified in 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1)-treated SR monomer and dimer. Activity assays indicated that SIN-1 treatment decreased SR activity, confirming our previous conclusion that noncovalent dimer is the most active form of SR. These findings suggest a compensatory feedback in which the consequences of neuroinflammation might dampen D-serine production to limit excitotoxic stimulation of NMDA receptors.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 06/2012; 90(6):1218-29. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22832 · 2.59 Impact Factor
"However, in cystic fibrosis these oxidative modifications of SP-D have been observed and they were associated with a loss of functional properties i.e. a reduced agglutination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Increased bacterial and viral colonisation are common in patients with COPD , which might be linked to reduced pulmonary SP-D levels as well as to a potentially impaired functionality due to the observed disrupted structure . To further elucidate the role of SP-D structural modifications in COPD, a quantitative evaluation between all groups with respect to the proportions of disrupted relative to the total SP-D level will be required, and there appears to be a need to clarify if ELISA measurements are affected by these SP-D modifications. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is considered as a candidate biomarker for the functional integrity of the lung and for disease progression, which can be detected in serum. The origin of SP-D in serum and how serum concentrations are related to pulmonary concentrations under inflammatory conditions is still unclear.
In a cross-sectional study comprising non-smokers (n=10), young--(n=10), elderly smokers (n=20), and smokers with COPD (n=20) we simultaneously analysed pulmonary and serum SP-D levels with regard to pulmonary function, exercise, repeatability and its quaternary structure by native gel electrophoresis. Statistical comparisons were conducted by ANOVA and post-hoc testing for multiple comparisons; repeatability was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis.
In COPD, median (IQR) pulmonary SP-D levels were lower (129(68) ng/ml) compared to smokers (young: 299(190), elderly: 296(158) ng/ml; p<0.01) and non-smokers (967(708) ng/ml; p<0.001). The opposite was observed in serum, with higher concentrations in COPD (140(89) ng/ml) as compared to non-smokers (76(47) ng/ml; p<0.01). SP-D levels were reproducible and correlated with the degree of airway obstruction in all smokers. In addition, smoking lead to disruption of the quaternary structure.
Pulmonary and serum SP-D levels are stable markers influenced by smoking and related to airflow obstruction and disease state. Smaller subunits of pulmonary SP-D and the rapid increase of serum SP-D levels in COPD due to exercise support the translocation hypothesis and its use as a COPD biomarker.
no interventional trial.
Respiratory research 03/2011; 12(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-12-29 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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