Structural and functional analysis of the C-terminal DNA binding domain of the Salmonella typhimurium SPI-2 response regulator SsrB.
ABSTRACT In bacterial pathogenesis, virulence gene regulation is controlled by two-component regulatory systems. In Escherichia coli, the EnvZ/OmpR two-component system is best understood as regulating expression of outer membrane proteins, but in Salmonella enterica, OmpR activates transcription of the SsrA/B two-component system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). The response regulator SsrB controls expression of a type III secretory system in which effectors modify the vacuolar membrane and prevent its degradation via the endocytic pathway. Vacuolar modification enables Salmonella to survive and replicate in the macrophage phagosome and disseminate to the liver and spleen to cause systemic infection. The signals that activate EnvZ and SsrA are unknown but are related to the acidic pH encountered in the vacuole. Our previous work established that SsrB binds to regions of DNA that are AT-rich, with poor sequence conservation. Although SsrB is a major virulence regulator in Salmonella, very little is known regarding how it binds DNA and activates transcription. In the present work, we solved the structure of the C-terminal DNA binding domain of SsrB (SsrB(C)) by NMR and analyzed the effect of amino acid substitutions on function. We identified residues in the DNA recognition helix (Lys(179), Met(186)) and the dimerization interface (Val(197), Leu(201)) that are important for SsrB transcriptional activation and DNA binding. An essential cysteine residue in the N-terminal receiver domain was also identified (Cys(45)), and the effect of Cys(203) on dimerization was evaluated. Our results suggest that although disulfide bond formation is not required for dimerization, dimerization occurs upon DNA binding and is required for subsequent activation of transcription. Disruption of the dimer interface by a C203E substitution reduces SsrB activity. Modification of Cys(203) or Cys(45) may be an important mode of SsrB inactivation inside the host.
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ABSTRACT: MOLMOL is a molecular graphics program for display, analysis, and manipulation of three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules, with special emphasis on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structures of proteins and nucleic acids. MOLMOL has a graphical user interface with menus, dialog boxes, and on-line help. The display possibilities include conventional presentation, as well as novel schematic drawings, with the option of combining different presentations in one view of a molecule. Covalent molecular structures can be modified by addition or removal of individual atoms and bonds, and three-dimensional structures can be manipulated by interactive rotation about individual bonds. Special efforts were made to allow for appropriate display and analysis of the sets of typically 20–40 conformers that are conventionally used to represent the result of an NMR structure determination, using functions for superimposing sets of conformers, calculation of root mean square distance (RMSD) values, identification of hydrogen bonds, checking and displaying violations of NMR constraints, and identification and listing of short distances between pairs of hydrogen atoms.Journal of Molecular Graphics 03/1996;
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ABSTRACT: StyR belongs to the FixJ subfamily of signal transduction response regulators; it controls transcription of the styABCD operon coding for styrene catabolism in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST. The crystal structure of unphosphorylated StyR is reported at 2.2 A resolution. StyR is composed of an N-terminal regulatory domain (StyR-N) and a C-terminal DNA binding domain (StyR-C). The two domains are separated by an elongated linker alpha helix (34 residues), a new feature in known response regulator structures. StyR-C is structured similarly to the DNA binding domain of the response regulator NarL. StyR-N shows structural reorganization of the phosphate receiving region involved in activation/homodimerization: specific residues adopt an "active-like" conformation, and the alpha4 helix, involved in dimerization of the homologous FixJ response regulator, is trimmed to just one helical turn. Overall, structural considerations suggest that phosphorylation may act as an allosteric switch, shifting a preexisting StyR equilibrium toward the active, dimeric, DNA binding form.Structure 10/2005; 13(9):1289-97. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known asNature 06/2002; 417(6892):971-974. · 38.60 Impact Factor