Tumor-necrosis factor-alpha induces retinoic acid-inducible gene-I in rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocytes
ABSTRACT Tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammtory cytokine and a key molecule in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) is a DExH box protein, which is known to play a role in the inflammatory and immune reactions. We previously reported about potential involvement of RIG-I in synovial inflammation in RA. In the present study, we demonstrated the expression of RIG-I in fibroblast-like synoviocytes stimulated with TNF-alpha. RNA interference against interferon (IFN)-beta abolished the TNF-alpha-induced RIG-I expression. In addition, knockdown of RIG-I partially inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 5, a chemokine with chemotactic activity toward lymphocytes and monocytes. These findings suggest that the TNF-alpha/IFN-beta/RIG-I/CCL5 pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of synovial inflammation in RA.
SourceAvailable from: George D Kalliolias[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective During the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are chronically exposed to an inflammatory milieu. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that prolonged exposure of FLS to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) augments inflammatory responses to secondary stimuli (priming effect).MethodsFLS obtained from RA patients were exposed to TNFα for 3 days and were then stimulated with interferons (IFNs). Expression of IFN target genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total STAT-1 protein and IFN-mediated STAT-1 activation were evaluated by Western blotting. Total histone levels, histone acetylation, and NF-κB p65 and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment were measured at the CXCL10 promoter (encodes IFNγ-inducible 10-kd protein [IP-10]) by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.ResultsProlonged pre-exposure of FLS to TNFα enhanced the magnitude and extended the kinetics of CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL9, and CXCL11 production upon subsequent IFN stimulation. This phenotype was retained over a period of days, even after the removal of TNFα. Prolonged TNFα exposure decreased histone levels, increased acetylation of the remaining histones, and heightened recruitment of NF-κB p65 and Pol II to the CXCL10 promoter. In parallel, an increase in intracellular STAT-1 led to amplification of IFN-induced STAT-1 activation.Conclusion Our study reveals a novel pathogenic function of TNFα, namely, prolonged and gene-specific priming of FLS for enhanced transcription of inflammatory chemokine genes due to the priming of chromatin, the sustained activation of NF-κB, and the amplification of STAT-1 activation downstream of IFNs. These data also suggest that FLS gain an “inflammatory memory” upon prolonged exposure to TNFα.Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/art.38871 · 7.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants found as complex mixtures in the environment throughout the world. Therefore, humans are ubiquitously and simultaneously exposed to TCDD and PCBs. TCDD and PCBs alone have been linked to atherosclerosis. However, the effects of interactions or synergism between TCDD and PCBs on atherogenesis are unknown. We investigated the possible enhanced atherogenesis by co-exposure to TCDD and PCBs and the potential mechanism(s) involved in this enhancement. Male apoE −/− mice were exposed to TCDD (15 μg/kg) and Aroclor1254 (55 mg/kg, a representative mixture of PCBs) alone or in combination by intraperitoneal injection four times over six weeks of duration. Our results showed that mice exposed to TCDD alone, but not Aroclor1254 alone, developed atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, we found that atherosclerotic disease was exacerbated to the greatest extent in mice co-exposed to TCDD and Aroclor1254. The enhanced lesions correlated with several pro-atherogenic changes, including a marked increase in the accumulation of the platelet-derived chemokine PF4, and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine MCP-1 and the critical immunity gene-RIG-I. Our data demonstrated that co-exposure to TCDD and Aroclor1254 markedly enhanced atherogenesis in apoE −/− mice. Significantly, our observations suggest that combined exposure to TCDD and PCBs may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than previously anticipated from individual studies.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2014.02.007 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: To study effects of drugs against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes or fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) are used. To overcome the drawbacks of using FLS, this study was conducted to show the validity of SW982 synovial cell line in RA study. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V propidium iodide (PI) staining, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, Triton X-114 Phase partitioning, and immunolot for apoptosis signaling in SW982 human synovial cell line were performed. Results: Fluvastatin induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in TNFα -stimulated SW982 human synovial cells. A geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) inhibitor, but not a farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) inhibitor, induced apoptosis, and fluvastatin-induced apoptosis was associated with the translocation of isoprenylated RhoA and Rac1 proteins from the cell membrane to the cytosol. Fluvastatin-induced downstream apoptotic signals were associated with inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Accordingly, 89 kDa apoptotic cleavage fragment of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was detected. Interpretation & conclusions: Collectively, our data indicate that fluvastatin induces apoptotic cell death in TNFα-stimulated SW982 human synovial cells through the inactivation of the geranylgerenylated membrane fraction of RhoA and Rac1 proteins and the subsequent inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This finding shows the validity of SW982 cell line for RA study.The Indian Journal of Medical Research 01/2014; 139(1):117-24. · 1.66 Impact Factor