Chromium (VI) induced changes in growth and root plasma membrane redox activities in pea plants.
ABSTRACT The effect of chromium (Cr) on growth as well as root plasma membrane redox reactions and superoxide radical production was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad) plants exposed for 7 days to 20 and 200 microM Cr (VI), respectively, supplied as potassium dichromate. The growth of pea plants declined significantly at 200 microM Cr, as indicated by reduced leaf area and biomass. Relative to the control plants (no Cr exposure), the Cr content of roots increased significantly, both at 20 and 200 microM Cr. Following exposure to 200 microM Cr, there was a significant increase in root lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, while both the Fv/Fm ratio and chlorophyll content were reduced. Exposure to Cr increased NADPH-dependent superoxide production in pea root plasma membrane vesicles, with the effect being more significant at 200 microM Cr than at 20 microM Cr. Treatment with Cr rapidly increased the activities of NADPH oxidase: relative to the controls, plants exposed to 20 microM Cr showed approximately a 67% increase in activity while there was a threefold increase in those plants exposed to 200 microM Cr. NADH-ferricyanide oxido-reductase activity was found to be inhibited by 16 and 51% at 20 and 200 microM Cr, respectively. The results of this study suggest that exposure to excess Cr damages pea root plasma membrane structure and function, resulting in decreased photosynthesis and poor plant growth.
- SourceAvailable from: Ravinder Kohli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chromium (Cr) is the second most common metal contaminant in ground water, soil, and sediments due to its wide industrial application, hence posing a serious environmental concern. Among various valence states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are the most stable forms. Cr(VI) is the most persistent in the soil and is highly toxic for biota. Since Cr is a non-essential element for plants, there is no uptake mechanism; Cr is taken up along essential elements such as sulfate through sulfate transporters. Cr accumulation in plants causes high toxicity in terms of reduction in growth and biomass accumulation, and Cr induces structural alterations. Cr interferes with photosynthetic and respiration processes, and water and minerals uptake mechanism. Various enzymatic activities related to starch and nitrogen metabolism are decreased by Cr toxicity either by direct interference with the enzymes or through the production of reactive oxygen species. Cr causes oxidative damage by destruction of membrane lipids and DNA damage. Cr may even cause the death of plant species. Few plant species are able to accumulate high amount of Cr without being damaged. Such Cr-tolerant, hyperaccumulator plants are exploited for their bioremediation property. The present review discusses Cr availability in the environment, Cr transfer to biota, toxicity issues, effect on germination and plant growth, morphological and ultrastructural aberrations, biochemical and physiological alterations, effect on metabolic processes, Cr-induced alterations at the molecular level, Cr hyperaccumulation and Cr detoxification mechanism, and the role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in Cr toxicity, in plants.Environmental Chemistry Letters · 1.91 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate chromium (Cr) toxicity in urograndis (Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake x grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden). Chromium nitrate was amended to Clark's nutrient solution (0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32 and 0.64 mmol L Cr), which was used to breed one urograndis cutting per pot (four replications). Regression analysis revealed that Cr rates of 0.08 mmol L or higher significantly decreased (P < 0.01) dry matter yield of shoot and root. Chromium accumulation order in plant was: root > stem > leaves. Critical Cr toxicity level in leaves was 0.74 mg kg. Uptake and translocation of nutrients were affected differently by Cr. Mostly have their uptake reduced due to root damage. Magnesium, iron and manganese translocation increases, supposedly to maintain normal photosynthetic activity. Wilting is the main visual symptom of Cr toxicity. Urograndis may be suitable for contaminated sites phytostabilization and receive industrial waste fertilization.Journal of Plant Nutrition 01/2012; 35(11):1618-1638. · 0.54 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of increasing arsenic (0, 10, 50, 100 mg L−1) and zinc (0, 50, 80, 120, 200 mg L−1) doses on germination and oxidative stress markers (H2O2, MDA, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR) were examined in two Brazilian savanna tree species (Anadenanthera peregrina and Myracrodruon urundeuva) commonly used to remediate contaminated soils. The deleterious effects of As and Zn on seed germination were due to As- and Zn-induced H2O2 accumulation and inhibition of APX and GR activities, which lead to oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation. SOD and CAT did not show any As- and Zn-induced inhibition of their activities as was seen with APX and GR. We investigated the close relationships between seed germination success under As and Zn stress in terms of GR and, especially, APX activities. Increased germination of A. peregrina seeds exposed to 50 mg L−1 of Zn was related to increased APX activity, and germination in the presence of As (10 mg L−1) was observed only in M. urundeuva seeds that demonstrated increased APX activity. All the treatments for both species in which germination decreased or was inhibited showed decreases in APX activity. A. peregrina seeds showed higher Zn-tolerance than M. urundeuva, while the reverse was observed with arsenic up to exposures of 10 mg L−1.Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35(4). · 1.52 Impact Factor