Chromium (VI) induced changes in growth and root plasma membrane redox activities in pea plants.
ABSTRACT The effect of chromium (Cr) on growth as well as root plasma membrane redox reactions and superoxide radical production was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad) plants exposed for 7 days to 20 and 200 microM Cr (VI), respectively, supplied as potassium dichromate. The growth of pea plants declined significantly at 200 microM Cr, as indicated by reduced leaf area and biomass. Relative to the control plants (no Cr exposure), the Cr content of roots increased significantly, both at 20 and 200 microM Cr. Following exposure to 200 microM Cr, there was a significant increase in root lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, while both the Fv/Fm ratio and chlorophyll content were reduced. Exposure to Cr increased NADPH-dependent superoxide production in pea root plasma membrane vesicles, with the effect being more significant at 200 microM Cr than at 20 microM Cr. Treatment with Cr rapidly increased the activities of NADPH oxidase: relative to the controls, plants exposed to 20 microM Cr showed approximately a 67% increase in activity while there was a threefold increase in those plants exposed to 200 microM Cr. NADH-ferricyanide oxido-reductase activity was found to be inhibited by 16 and 51% at 20 and 200 microM Cr, respectively. The results of this study suggest that exposure to excess Cr damages pea root plasma membrane structure and function, resulting in decreased photosynthesis and poor plant growth.
- SourceAvailable from: Dr. Vijay Pratap Singh
Dataset: BTER 2011(2)
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between oxalic acid and Cr tolerance in an accumulating plant Leersia hexandra Swartz. The plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Cr at 0, 5, 30, and 60 mg/L (without oxalate), and 0, 40, and 80 mg/L concentrations of Cr (with 70 mg/L oxalate or without oxalate). The results showed that more than 50% of Cr in shoots was found in HCl-extracted fraction (chromium oxalate) when the plants were exposed to Cr. Cr supply significantly increased oxalate concentration in shoots of L. hexandra (p < 0.05), but did not increase oxalate concentration in roots. Under 80 mg/L Cr stress, electrolyte leakages from roots and shoots with oxalate treatment were both significantly lower than those without oxalate treatment (p < 0.05), indicating exogenous oxalate supply alleviated Cr-induced membrane damage. Oxalate added to growth solution ameliorated reduction of biomass and inhibition of root growth induced by Cr, which demonstrated that application of oxalate helped L. hexandra tolerate Cr stress. However, oxalate supply did not affect the Cr concentrations both in roots and shoots of L. hexandra. These results suggest that oxalic acid may act as an important chelator and takes part in detoxifying chromium in internal process of L. hexandra.International Journal of Phytoremediation 12/2012; 14(10):966-77. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromium (VI) genotoxicity was evaluated in Allium bioassay by using different treatment protocols. Treatment of bulbs of Allium cepa L. with Cr(VI) at a range of concentrations for five days (120 h) exhibited low dose (12.5 µM) stimulation and high dose (25-200 µM) inhibition of root growth apparently indicating hormesis. Inhibition of root growth was correlated with the dose-dependent increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell death, lipid peroxidation, repression of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase), induction of DNA damage, chromosome aberrations or micronuclei in root cells. The above effects were, however, reversed when the duration of Cr(VI) treatment was limited to 3-24 h followed by recovery in tap water for 4 days that resulted in the dose-dependent stimulation of root growth, mitosis and increased activity of the antioxidative enzymes that obliterated oxidative stress and genotoxicity. The above Cr(VI)-induced stimulation of root growth was effectively countered by pre- or post-treatments of dimethylthiourea, a ROS-scavenger. These findings underscored that Cr(VI), depending on the magnitude of the dose (concentration x time), could either be stimulatory or inhibitory for root growth that underlined the crucial role of ROS having obvious implications in agriculture, post harvest technology and human health.Plant Growth Regulation 04/2013; 71:157-170. · 1.67 Impact Factor