The effect of chromium (Cr) on growth as well as root plasma membrane redox reactions and superoxide radical production was studied in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad) plants exposed for 7 days to 20 and 200 microM Cr (VI), respectively, supplied as potassium dichromate. The growth of pea plants declined significantly at 200 microM Cr, as indicated by reduced leaf area and biomass. Relative to the control plants (no Cr exposure), the Cr content of roots increased significantly, both at 20 and 200 microM Cr. Following exposure to 200 microM Cr, there was a significant increase in root lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, while both the Fv/Fm ratio and chlorophyll content were reduced. Exposure to Cr increased NADPH-dependent superoxide production in pea root plasma membrane vesicles, with the effect being more significant at 200 microM Cr than at 20 microM Cr. Treatment with Cr rapidly increased the activities of NADPH oxidase: relative to the controls, plants exposed to 20 microM Cr showed approximately a 67% increase in activity while there was a threefold increase in those plants exposed to 200 microM Cr. NADH-ferricyanide oxido-reductase activity was found to be inhibited by 16 and 51% at 20 and 200 microM Cr, respectively. The results of this study suggest that exposure to excess Cr damages pea root plasma membrane structure and function, resulting in decreased photosynthesis and poor plant growth.
"Cr(VI; 150 mg l −1 ) caused a decrease in IAA and IBA content in roots and shoots, and an increase in seeds of T. aestivum (Zhang et al. 2009). Exposure to Cr(VI) increased NADPH-dependent superoxide production and the activity of NADPH oxidase and decreased the activity of NADHferricyanide oxido-reductase in P. sativum root plasma membrane vesicles, thereby suggesting interference of Cr (VI) with plasma membrane functionality (Pandey et al. 2009). Of late, the presence of Cr (@1,346 mg kg −1 soil) in metallurgical landfill soil has been found to alter the leaf fatty acid composition in Lactuca serriola (Le Guédard et al. 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromium (Cr) is the second most common metal contaminant in ground water, soil, and sediments due to its wide industrial application, hence posing a serious environmental concern. Among various valence states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are the most stable forms. Cr(VI) is the most persistent in the soil and is highly toxic for biota. Since Cr is a non-essential element for plants, there is no uptake mechanism; Cr is taken up along essential elements such as sulfate through sulfate transporters. Cr accumulation in plants causes high toxicity in terms of reduction in growth and biomass accumulation, and Cr induces structural alterations. Cr interferes with photosynthetic and respiration processes, and water and minerals uptake mechanism. Various enzymatic activities related to starch and nitrogen metabolism are decreased by Cr toxicity either by direct interference with the enzymes or through the production of reactive oxygen species. Cr causes oxidative damage by destruction of membrane lipids and DNA damage. Cr may even cause the death of plant species. Few plant species are able to accumulate high amount of Cr without being damaged. Such Cr-tolerant, hyperaccumulator plants are exploited for their bioremediation property. The present review discusses Cr availability in the environment, Cr transfer to biota, toxicity issues, effect on germination and plant growth, morphological and ultrastructural aberrations, biochemical and physiological alterations, effect on metabolic processes, Cr-induced alterations at the molecular level, Cr hyperaccumulation and Cr detoxification mechanism, and the role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in Cr toxicity, in plants.
"A previous study showed that most of Cr in roots was sequestered in cell wall where the cellulose, amylase and protein molecules might be the major detoxifying agents for Cr (Liu et al. 2009). Cr-induced oxidative damage on cell membranes was reported in Eichhornia crassipes and Pisum sativum (Zhou 1993; Pandey et al. 2009). This phenomenon was also observed in the present work. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between oxalic acid and Cr tolerance in an accumulating plant Leersia hexandra Swartz. The plants grown in hydroponics were exposed to Cr at 0, 5, 30, and 60 mg/L (without oxalate), and 0, 40, and 80 mg/L concentrations of Cr (with 70 mg/L oxalate or without oxalate). The results showed that more than 50% of Cr in shoots was found in HCl-extracted fraction (chromium oxalate) when the plants were exposed to Cr. Cr supply significantly increased oxalate concentration in shoots of L. hexandra (p < 0.05), but did not increase oxalate concentration in roots. Under 80 mg/L Cr stress, electrolyte leakages from roots and shoots with oxalate treatment were both significantly lower than those without oxalate treatment (p < 0.05), indicating exogenous oxalate supply alleviated Cr-induced membrane damage. Oxalate added to growth solution ameliorated reduction of biomass and inhibition of root growth induced by Cr, which demonstrated that application of oxalate helped L. hexandra tolerate Cr stress. However, oxalate supply did not affect the Cr concentrations both in roots and shoots of L. hexandra. These results suggest that oxalic acid may act as an important chelator and takes part in detoxifying chromium in internal process of L. hexandra.
International Journal of Phytoremediation 12/2012; 14(10):966-77. DOI:10.1080/15226514.2011.636406 · 1.74 Impact Factor
"03 ] . Furthermore , NADPH - OX has been identified as the principal oxidase in the generation of ROS , causing an oxidative burst under trace metal stress ( Cd 21 , Cr 61 , Cu 21 , and Ni 21 ) in several plant systems , including Nicotiana BY - 2 cell lines , T . durum , P . sativum , and A . thaliana [ Olmos et al . , 2003 ; Hao et al . , 2006 ; Pandey et al . , 2009 ; Cuypers et al . , 2011 ] ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants under stress incur an oxidative burst that involves a rapid and transient overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS: O(2) (•-) , H(2) O(2) , (•) OH). We hypothesized that aluminum (Al), an established soil pollutant that causes plant stress, would induce an oxidative burst through the activation of cell wall-NADH peroxidase (NADH-PX) and/or plasma membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NADPH-OX), leading to DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa L. Growing roots of A. cepa were treated with Al(3+) (800 μM of AlCl(3) ) for 3 or 6 hr without or with the pretreatment of inhibitors specific to NADH-PX and NADPH-OX for 2 hr. At the end of the treatment, the extent of ROS generation, cell death, and DNA damage were determined. The cell wall-bound protein (CWP) fractions extracted from the untreated control and the Al-treated roots under the aforementioned experimental conditions were also subjected to in vitro studies, which measured the extent of activation of peroxidase/oxidase, generation of (•) OH, and DNA damage. Overall, the present study demonstrates that the cell wall-bound NADH-PX contributes to the Al-induced oxidative burst through the generation of ROS that lead to cell death and DNA damage in the root cells of A. cepa. Furthermore, the in vitro studies revealed that the CWP fraction by itself caused DNA damage in the presence of NADH, supporting a role for NADH-PX in the stress response. Altogether, this study underscores the crucial function of the cell wall-bound NADH-PX in the oxidative burst-mediated cell death and DNA damage in plants under Al stress.
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