Clinical application of laparoscopic bariatric surgery: an evidence-based review. Surg Endosc

Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7081, USA.
Surgical Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 3.26). 02/2009; 23(5):930-49. DOI: 10.1007/s00464-008-0217-1
Source: PubMed


Approximately one-third of U.S. adults are obese. Current evidence suggests that surgical therapies offer the morbidly obese the best hope for substantial and sustainable weight loss, with a resultant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive methods have altered the demand for bariatric procedures. However, no evidence-based clinical reviews yet exist to guide patients and surgeons in selecting the bariatric operation most applicable to a given situation.
This evidenced-based review is presented in conjunction with a clinical practice guideline developed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). References were reviewed by the authors and graded as to the level of evidence. Recommendations were developed and qualified by the level of supporting evidence available at the time of the associated SAGES guideline publication. The guideline also was reviewed and co-endorsed by the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, producing durable weight loss, improvement of comorbid conditions, and longer life. Patient selection algorithms should favor individual risk-benefit considerations over traditional anthropometric and demographic limits. Bariatric care should be delivered within credentialed multidisciplinary systems. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD + DS) are validated procedures that may be performed laparoscopically. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) also is a promising procedure. Comparative data find that procedures with more dramatic clinical benefits carry greater risks, and those offering greater safety and flexibility are associated with less reliable efficacy.
Laparoscopic RGB, AGB, BPD + DS, and primary LSG have been proved effective. Currently, the choice of operation should be driven by patient and surgeon preferences, as well as by considerations regarding the relative importance placed on discrete outcomes.

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    • "Influence of diet and exercise in morbid obese patients is about 10% in long term period; thus, in case of lifestyle modification failure, bariatric surgery could be considered [10]. They need a potential trigger for weight loss like restrictive bariatric surgeries that are effective to preserve diet for about 4 years [11,12]. Other methods have limited and temporary effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic Gastric Plication (LGP) is a new restrictive bariatric surgery, previously introduced by the author. The aim of this study is to explain the modifications and to present the 12-year experience, regarding early and long term results, complications and cost. We used LGP for morbid obesity during the past 12 years. Anterior plication (10 cases), one-row bilateral plication while right gastroepiploic artery included (42 cases), and excluded from the plication (104 cases) and two-row plication (644 cases). The gastric greater curvature was plicated using 2/0 prolen from fundus at the level of diaphragm preserving the His angle to just proximal to the pylorus. The anatomic and functional volume of stomach was 50cc and 25cc respectively in two-row method. Ordered postop visits also included evaluation of weight loss, complications, change of diet and control of exercise. LGP was performed in 800 cases (mean age: 27.5, range: 12 to 65 years, nine under 18). Female to male ratio was 81% to 19% and average BMI was 42.1 (35-59). The mean excess weight loss (EWL) was 70% (40% to 100%) after 24 months and 55% (28% to 100%) after 5 years following surgery. 134 cases (16.7%) did not completed long term follow-up. The average time of follow up was 5 years (1 month to 12 years). 5.5% and 31% of cases complained from weight regain respectively during 4 and 12 years after LGP. The mean time of operation was 72 (49-152) minutes and average hospitalization time was 72 hours (24 hours to 45 days). The cost of operation was 2000 $ less than gastric banding or sleeve and 2500 $ less than gastric bypass. Eight patients out of 800 cases (1%) required reoperation due to complications like: micro perforation, obstruction and vomiting following adhesion of His angle. Other complications included hepatitis pneumonia, self-limiting intra-abdominal bleeding and hypocalcaemia. The percentage of EWL in this technique is comparable to other restrictive methods. The technique is safe with 1.6% complication (1% reoperated), and 31% regain during 12 years. The cost of operation is less than the other methods.
    Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research 08/2012; 6(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1750-1164-6-7
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    • "First, the prevalence of morbidly obesity increases rapidly, approaching 8% for some populations in the United States [2]. Secondly, there is a growing consensus that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and long-term treatment for clinically severe obesity, accompanied with a low mortality rate [3] [4] [5]. Morbid obesity is associated with a number of comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance, sleep apnea, etc [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing consensus that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and long-term treatment for clinically severe obesity. However, it remains to be determined whether poor physical fitness, an important characteristic of these patients, improves as well. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of gastric bypass surgery on physical fitness and to determine if an exercise program in the first 4 months is beneficial. Fifteen morbidly obese patients (BMI 43.0 kg/m(2)) were tested before and 4 months after gastric bypass surgery. Eight of them followed a combined endurance and strength training program. Before and after 4 months the operation, anthropometrical characteristics were measured, and an extensive assessment of physical fitness (strength, aerobic, and functional capacity) was performed. Large-scale weight loss through gastric bypass surgery results in a decrease in dynamic and static muscle strength and no improvement of aerobic capacity. In contrast, an intensive exercise program could prevent the decrease and even induced an increase in strength of most muscle groups. Together with an improvement in aerobic capacity, functional capacity increased significantly. Both groups evolved equally with regard to body composition (decrease in fat mass and fat-free mass). An exercise training program in the first 4 months after bariatric surgery is effective and should be promoted, considering the fact that physical fitness does not improve by weight loss only.
    Obesity Surgery 12/2009; 21(1):61-70. DOI:10.1007/s11695-009-0045-y · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe rise in bariatric surgery has driven an increased number of complications from venous thromboembolism (VTE). Evidence supports obesity as an independent risk factor for VTE, but the specific derangements underlying the hypercoagulability of obesity are not well defined. To better characterize VTE risk for the purpose of tailoring prophylactic strategies, we developed a protocol for thrombophilia screening in patients presenting for bariatric surgery at our institution. MethodsBetween April 2004 and April 2006, 180 bariatric surgery candidates underwent serologic screening for inherited thrombophilias (Factor V-Leiden mutation, low Protein C activity, low Protein S activity, Free Protein S deficiency) and acquired thrombophilias (D-Dimer elevation, Fibrinogen elevation, elevation of coagulation factors VIII, IX, and XI, elevation of Lupus anticoagulants and homocysteine level, and Antithrombin III deficiency). Prevalence rate of each thrombophilia in the subject group was compared to the actual prevalence rate of the general population. ResultsMost plasma markers of both inherited and acquired thrombophilias were identified in higher than expected proportions, including D-Dimer elevation in 31%, Fibrinogen elevation in 40%, Factor VIII elevation in 50%, Factor IX elevation in 64%, Factor XI elevation in 50%, and Lupus anticoagulant in 13%. ConclusionsObesity is a well-described demographic risk factor for VTE. In bariatric surgery candidates routinely screened for serologic markers, both inherited and acquired thrombophilias occurred more frequently than in the general population, and may therefore prove to be useful for individualized VTE risk assessment and prophylaxis.
    Obesity Surgery 09/2009; 19(9):1278-1285. DOI:10.1007/s11695-009-9906-7 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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